Qualitative Research Observations and Interviews By Mary Ellen

  • Slides: 23
Download presentation
Qualitative Research: Observations and Interviews By Mary Ellen Young, Ph. D, CRC University of

Qualitative Research: Observations and Interviews By Mary Ellen Young, Ph. D, CRC University of Florida

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Induction vs. deduction n Generation vs. verification n Construction vs. enumeration

Qualitative vs. Quantitative Induction vs. deduction n Generation vs. verification n Construction vs. enumeration n Subjective vs. objective n

Qualitative Characteristics Naturalistic n Phenomenological n Holistic n Hermeneutic n

Qualitative Characteristics Naturalistic n Phenomenological n Holistic n Hermeneutic n

Outcomes Case studies n Ethnographies n Typologies n Survey design n Theory building—grounded theory

Outcomes Case studies n Ethnographies n Typologies n Survey design n Theory building—grounded theory n

Theory Coding n Categories n Properties of categories n Relationship of categories n Constant

Theory Coding n Categories n Properties of categories n Relationship of categories n Constant comparisons n Interpretations n Hypothesis generation n

Observational Data Human perception is highly selective n Social science observers must be trained

Observational Data Human perception is highly selective n Social science observers must be trained n Observers must be prepared to observed n Pasteur: “In the fields of observation, chance favors the prepared mind. ” n

Observational Data Describes. . . n n Setting Activities People Meaning

Observational Data Describes. . . n n Setting Activities People Meaning

“Always be suspicious of data collection that goes according to plan. ” Halcolm’s Laws

“Always be suspicious of data collection that goes according to plan. ” Halcolm’s Laws

Purpose of Observational Data Reader is able to enter the situation n Information users

Purpose of Observational Data Reader is able to enter the situation n Information users understand context n Decision makers informed about what is occurring n

Entering the Field n n n Preparation Safety Equipment

Entering the Field n n n Preparation Safety Equipment

“Always carry extra batteries and get away money. ” Halcolm’s Laws

“Always carry extra batteries and get away money. ” Halcolm’s Laws

Researcher Roles Participant vs. non-participant observer n Overt vs. covert observations n Disclosure of

Researcher Roles Participant vs. non-participant observer n Overt vs. covert observations n Disclosure of purpose n Duration in field n Focus of observations n

Field Notes n n Include everything worth noting Do immediately after interview Don’t trust

Field Notes n n Include everything worth noting Do immediately after interview Don’t trust memory Vague and overgeneralized vs. detailed and concrete notes

Field Notes Include… Thick description n Observers feelings* n Insights, interpretations, analyses, working hypotheses*

Field Notes Include… Thick description n Observers feelings* n Insights, interpretations, analyses, working hypotheses* n n *Clearly labeled as such

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle n Instruments used to measure velocity and position of electron alter

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle n Instruments used to measure velocity and position of electron alter the accuracy of measurement

Observational Effects n n Process of observing affects what is observed Must monitor effects

Observational Effects n n Process of observing affects what is observed Must monitor effects and take into account in interpretations

Qualitative Interviewing Allows us to enter another’s perspective n Cannot observe feelings, thoughts, intentions

Qualitative Interviewing Allows us to enter another’s perspective n Cannot observe feelings, thoughts, intentions n Quality of information is dependent on skill of the interviewer n

Three Types Informal conversational interview n Interview guide n Standardized open-ended questions n

Three Types Informal conversational interview n Interview guide n Standardized open-ended questions n

Interview Guide Provides topics to be covered n Interviewer is free to build a

Interview Guide Provides topics to be covered n Interviewer is free to build a conversation around the topics n Word questions spontaneously n Guide provides a framework for question sequence n Follow up questions, probes are used n

Questions n n n Open-ended Neutral Singular Clear Avoid dichotomous questions that seem to

Questions n n n Open-ended Neutral Singular Clear Avoid dichotomous questions that seem to suggest a yes-no answer

Nonverbal Cues n n n Voice level and pitch Speech fluency Silence Distance Position

Nonverbal Cues n n n Voice level and pitch Speech fluency Silence Distance Position in room Touch

Nonverbal Cues n n n n Eyes Mouth Facial expressions Head Shoulders Arms/hands Legs/feet

Nonverbal Cues n n n n Eyes Mouth Facial expressions Head Shoulders Arms/hands Legs/feet Total body

Evaluation Trustworthiness vs. reliability n Credibility vs. validity n

Evaluation Trustworthiness vs. reliability n Credibility vs. validity n