- Slides: 26
CHARACTERISTICS OF PURE MONOPOLY � Single seller � No close substitutes � “Price maker” � Blocked entry � Non-price competition
ECONOMIES OF SCALE IN A PURE MONOPOLY � Economies of Scale = declining average total cost (ATC) as production increases � Pure Monopoly has a constant downward sloping long-run ATC curve Long Run ATC in Pure Competition Long Run ATC in Pure Monopoly
ECONOMIES OF SCALE IN A PURE MONOPOLY � Economies of Scale in a Pure Monopoly are a barrier to entry for other firms: � Smaller scale = less economies of scale � Massive amounts of start up costs and obtaining financing to launch new large scale production
OTHER BARRIERS TO ENTRY � Patents � Licenses � Control of Resources � Private Property Rights � Locational control of resources � Pricing � Distribution agreements
MONOPOLY DEMAND � Assumptions: � Barriers to entry ensure firm’s monopoly � Government doesn’t regulate the monopolist � The firm is a single-price monopolist � Charges � Monopolist same price for all units of output demand curve = market demand curve � Demand curve is not perfectly elastic = �A downward sloping demand curve
MARGINAL REVENUE < PRICE � Monopolist can only increase sales by lowering price � But as single-price monopolist – by lowering price for the additional output, it must also lower prices for all of the previous units of production!
MARGINAL REVENUE < PRICE � Example: 3 Halo VI video games at $55. 00 each = $165 4 Halo VI video games at $45. 00 each = $180 Forgone amount (revenue loss) = 3 x $10 ($55 - $45) = $30 MR = $45(1 additional unit) - $30(revenue loss) = $15 P = $45. 00 Therefore MR < P
MARGINAL AND TOTAL REVENUE CURVES Points where Total Revenue is maximized T R D MR
PROFIT MAXIMIZATION � Monopolistic firm competes for resources (just like in pure competition!) � Monopolistic firm will produce where MR = MC (just like in pure competition!) � Monopolistic firm will produce at the level of production which has the greatest positive difference between TR and TC (just like in pure competition!)
SUPPLY CURVE IN PURE MONOPOLY � Is there a supply curve in pure monopoly? No!!!! Why? ? ? There is no unique relationship between price and quantity supplied. The price and quantity supplied will always depend on the location of the demand curve!
MARGINAL COST AND REVENUE CURVES Economic Profits MC ATC P Profit Maximization: MC = MR D QD MR
MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT MONOPOLIES � Monopolists cannot charge the highest price it can get � Maximize profits where TR – TC is greatest � Depends on quantity sold and price � Total profits is the goal of monopolists � Unit � Pure profit does not indicate profit maximization monopoly doesn’t guarantee profit
LOSSES IN MONOPOLY � Causes of Loss: � Change in people’s tastes � Upward shifting cost curves (ex: rise in resources) � Effects of Loss: � Monopoly firm will continue to operate for a while even if incurring losses IF � Total loss < fixed costs � Price > AVC � Firm will reallocate resources to more profitable industries
ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF MONOPOLY � Monopolies will sell less products at a higher price � Monopoly price will exceed marginal cost and marginal revenue b/c consumers will still pay at the higher level � Allocative efficiency is not achieved � Productive efficiency is not achieved � Efficiency loss (or deadweight loss) occurs
INCOME EFFECTS OF MONOPOLY � Income distribution more unequal � Business owners receive unbalance share of income from consumers
COST COMPLICATIONS OF MONOPOLY � Extensive Economies of Scale = monopoly has a lower ATC than purely competitive firms � X-inefficiency – output is produced at a higher cost than is necessary to produce it (no incentive to be more efficient) � Rent-seeking behavior – trying to obtain/maintain a monopoly even at a cost to the consumer or society � Rate of technological advances slowed – less incentives to improve technology which would improve efficiency
PRICE DISCRIMINATION � Occurs when a given product is sold at more than one price and the price differences are not based on cost differences � Charging each customer a single market maximum price � Charging each customer one price for the first set of units purchased and a lower price for subsequent sets of units (bulk purchases) � Charging one group of customers one price and another group a different price
PRICE DISCRIMINATION � Success = � Monopoly power to control output and price � Ability to segregate the market (based on differing elasticities of demand) � Buyers unable to resell the original product or service � Examples: � Airline tickets (business vs. coach) � Electric utilities (higher rates during the day) � Discount coupons � Movie theaters and golf courses
PRICE DISCRIMINATION � Different groups result in different demand curves and MR curves � Results in different profit maximization and quantity levels � Each segment still follows MR = MC output and price level Don’t write this down!!!
PRICE DISCRIMINATION AND CONSUMER SURPLUS
PRICE DISCRIMINATION AND PROFIT � Therefore, a price discriminating monopolist will earn profits like this: Notice that for the price discriminating monopolist the MR and the Demand curve are the same!
SOCIALLY OPTIMAL PRICE VS. FAIR RETURN PRICE � Gov’t might set a price at the “socially optimal price” (P = MC) – where production is allocatively efficient � OR…Gov’ts may set artificial price level higher/lower than the socially optimum price (Fair Return Price) � To give the firm a “fair return” on it’s investment and avoid losses � Where P = ATC � EX: Washington Metro � Right now P < ATC so govt’s have to subsidize Metro
MARGINAL COST AND REVENUE CURVES Economic Profits MC Socially Optimal Price: MC = D ATC P Profit Maximization: MC = MR D QD MR Fair Return Price: ATC = D (Earn only NORMAL Profits)
DRAW A GRAPH � On a piece of paper draw the graph for a single -price monopolist experiencing economic losses! � On your graph, label the following � The axis (or axes) � Demand Curve � Marginal Revenue Curve � Marginal Cost Curve � Average Total Cost Curve � Profit Maximizing Price (Pm) and Quantity (Qm) � The area of economic losses (shaded completely) � The Fair Return Price (Pfr) and Quantity (Qfr) � The Socially Optimal (or allocatively efficient) Price (Pso) and Quantity (Qso)
CRASH COURSE SUMMARY