Public Administration N 6 Module 1 Generic administrative

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Public Administration N 6

Public Administration N 6

Module 1 – Generic administrative and management functions GENERIC ADMINISTRATIVE AND MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS There

Module 1 – Generic administrative and management functions GENERIC ADMINISTRATIVE AND MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS There are six generic administrative functions. These are: • Policy making; • Organising; • Financing; • Staffing; • Development and necessity of work procedures; and • Control and management. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 1 – Generic administrative and management functions (continued) PROCEDURES AND METHODS To ensure

Module 1 – Generic administrative and management functions (continued) PROCEDURES AND METHODS To ensure that personnel in a specific department co-operate in attaining policy objectives and do not waste time in the process, it is essential to have specific procedures for each task. These procedures and methods should be updated from time to time and are usually developed for a specific purpose. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 1 – Generic administrative and management functions (continued) FURTHER INSIGHT AND CONCLUSION The

Module 1 – Generic administrative and management functions (continued) FURTHER INSIGHT AND CONCLUSION The main objective of developing work methods and procedures in public institutions should be focused on the needs and interests of clients. Managers have the responsibility of communicating the need for change and should develop a course of action to implement change. Managers should also build internal support for change and reduce resistance to change through participation in the change process and by other means. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 2 – Control and responsibility INTRODUCTION The objective of control in the public

Module 2 – Control and responsibility INTRODUCTION The objective of control in the public sector should always be to ensure that the authorities are publicly accountable for every activity performed or neglected. In this way citizens can see exactly what is being done or not being done to further their individual and collective interests. In the public sector, control consists of two parts namely: • Internal control, exercised by executive functionaries; and • Giving account in the meetings of the legislatures. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 2 – Control and responsibility (continued) THE NATURE OF STATE CONTROL For effective

Module 2 – Control and responsibility (continued) THE NATURE OF STATE CONTROL For effective prevention of corruption, attention has to be focussed on developing clear policies and procedures, quality and ethical standards, systems of transparency and effective law enforcement mechanisms. Thus, by improving accountability and control systems, we can expect higher levels of integrity in the public sector. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 2 – Control and responsibility (continued) KINDS OF CONTROL The control process in

Module 2 – Control and responsibility (continued) KINDS OF CONTROL The control process in the government takes place in different forms. Control can focus on events before, during or after a process. It can also be internal or external control. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 2 – Control and responsibility (continued) THE CONTROL PROCESS The control process consists

Module 2 – Control and responsibility (continued) THE CONTROL PROCESS The control process consists of clearly identifiable actions and processes. These actions and processes include: • Setting standards; • Measuring performance against standards; • Evaluating deviations from the standard of performance; and • Taking steps to rectify the matter. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 2 – Control and responsibility (continued) PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY The aim of public accountability

Module 2 – Control and responsibility (continued) PUBLIC ACCOUNTABILITY The aim of public accountability is to produce public information to citizens before government acts on decisions made. Citizens can in this way sensibly challenge government to amend, alter or halt their intentions and reasons. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 2 – Control and responsibility (continued) THE OMBUDSMAN (PUBLIC PROTECTOR) The public protector

Module 2 – Control and responsibility (continued) THE OMBUDSMAN (PUBLIC PROTECTOR) The public protector may investigate both on his or her own initiative, on the basis of media reports and on receipt of written complaint from an aggrieved person. The ombudsman is impartial and aims to investigate irregular or illegal behaviour. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 3 – Management function INTRODUCTION A variety of functions need to be performed

Module 3 – Management function INTRODUCTION A variety of functions need to be performed to develop, maintain and operate public administration. It was realised that theory of business administration could be managed and could also be applied to the public sector, even though their main aim is not to make a profit. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 3 – Management function (continued) THE NATURE AND CONTENTS OF PUBLIC MANAGEMENT Public

Module 3 – Management function (continued) THE NATURE AND CONTENTS OF PUBLIC MANAGEMENT Public Management only takes place in the public sector and involves a number of generic management functions, namely planning, organising, leading, control and co-ordination. Public Management can be seen as the seventh function of the six generic administrative functions. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 3 – Management function (continued) THE NATURE OF ADMINISTRATION Administration in the public

Module 3 – Management function (continued) THE NATURE OF ADMINISTRATION Administration in the public sector consists of the following six generic processes: • Policy-making; • Provision and utilisation of staff/staffing; • Organisation; • Revision of work procedures; • Financing; • Exercising control; and • 7 th Function: Public Management www. futuremanagers. com

Module 3 – Management function (continued) PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A MANAGER Abilities of a

Module 3 – Management function (continued) PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A MANAGER Abilities of a manager should include the following: • The ability to plan; • The ability to organise; • The ability to communicate; • The ability to inspire people; • The ability to coordinate; and • The ability to control. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 3 – Management function (continued) THE FUNCTIONS OF PUBLIC MANAGERS The public manager

Module 3 – Management function (continued) THE FUNCTIONS OF PUBLIC MANAGERS The public manager must: • Attain his position; • Determine and establish functions necessary to achieve objectives; and • Direct actions and behaviour as indicated by policy. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 3 – Management function (continued) ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR It is essential that a good

Module 3 – Management function (continued) ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR It is essential that a good public manager be a person of integrity and should display behaviour of high morals. Public Administration in the public sector should be conducted in an ethical manner and should enhance the welfare of all citizens. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 4 – Auxiliary function INTRODUCTION A number of auxiliary functions have to be

Module 4 – Auxiliary function INTRODUCTION A number of auxiliary functions have to be carried out in order to support the administrative and functional activities of a department. These activities are normally performed by properly qualified and skilled employees for effective and efficient work performance. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 4 – Auxiliary function (continued) RESEARCH If research is done correctly it may

Module 4 – Auxiliary function (continued) RESEARCH If research is done correctly it may help us to understand possibly even solve existing or possible problems in the world. The results of research can help government make informed decisions about policies and about what strategies would help. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 4 – Auxiliary function (continued) PROVISION OF LEGAL SERVICES State law advisors are

Module 4 – Auxiliary function (continued) PROVISION OF LEGAL SERVICES State law advisors are appointed by the Minister of Justice. Functions of state law advisers including, but not limited to: • Giving legal advice to state departments; • Assisting state departments and provincial administrations with drafting bills; • Assist with the passage of bills through parliament; • Giving advice to state departments on the interpretation of laws and on the implementation of laws. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 4 – Auxiliary function (continued) DOCUMENTATION Every public institution is required to maintain

Module 4 – Auxiliary function (continued) DOCUMENTATION Every public institution is required to maintain records on its activities. There are two kinds of records which can be classified as: • Transaction documents; and • Reference documents. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 4 – Auxiliary function (continued) PUBLIC RELATIONS The functions of the public relations

Module 4 – Auxiliary function (continued) PUBLIC RELATIONS The functions of the public relations officer are to create, maintain and enhance the reputation of government institutions. This could help to create a favourable public image for the public institution by strengthening its credibility. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 4 – Auxiliary function (continued) THE COLLECTION OF INFORMATION AND THE MAINTENANCE OF

Module 4 – Auxiliary function (continued) THE COLLECTION OF INFORMATION AND THE MAINTENANCE OF INFORMATION SERVICES All information from the public sector should always be based on factual information. To ensure that this is done, the government has established and maintains information systems. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 4 – Auxiliary function (continued) PROVISION OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND STOCK For a public

Module 4 – Auxiliary function (continued) PROVISION OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND STOCK For a public institution to carry out their tasks, it should have an appropriate infrastructure such as buildings with relevant equipment. The provision of infrastructure involves spending a great deal of money and it is essential that officials are well educated and skilled to perform their functions. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 4 – Auxiliary function (continued) CONCLUSION Some of the auxiliary activities require properly

Module 4 – Auxiliary function (continued) CONCLUSION Some of the auxiliary activities require properly qualified and skilled employees for their economic, effective and efficient performance. Therefore, political office bearers and officials should be acquainted with auxiliary activities to ensure that adequate arrangements are made for their performance. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 5 – Instrumental functions INTRODUCTION Public officials should be equipped with excellent communication

Module 5 – Instrumental functions INTRODUCTION Public officials should be equipped with excellent communication skills and should have the ability to respond well to enquiries from colleagues and clients. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 5 – Instrumental functions (continued) PERSONAL MATTERS Any organisation runs well based on

Module 5 – Instrumental functions (continued) PERSONAL MATTERS Any organisation runs well based on the personal skills and abilities of their employees. There are various activities every official should be able to perform from communication skills to decision making skills to qualify him or her for employment. These matters of personal knowledge and skill are instrumental in the performance of an official’s work. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 5 – Instrumental functions (continued) IMPERSONAL MATTERS To enable an employee to carry

Module 5 – Instrumental functions (continued) IMPERSONAL MATTERS To enable an employee to carry out his tasks effectively he or she should be provided with a number of general aids. These aids include: • Offices, workshops, laboratories and other workplaces; • Furniture and equipment; • Motor and other transport; • Uniforms and protective clothing; and • Stationery, related materials and appropriate technology. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 5 – Instrumental functions (continued) CONCLUSION Various personal functions have to be performed

Module 5 – Instrumental functions (continued) CONCLUSION Various personal functions have to be performed such as communication, listening, reading, formulating proposals and making decisions to achieve objectives. Workers should also be provided with general instrumental requirements to enable them to perform their personal duties effectively. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 6 – Line functions INTRODUCTION The main purpose of public institutions is to

Module 6 – Line functions INTRODUCTION The main purpose of public institutions is to provide specific products or services to the public. For this, appropriate functions are necessary. This means that each public institution is identified and characterised by its functional actions. These are also known as line functions. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 6 – Line functions (continued) OBJECTIVES AND FUNCTIONS OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS The number

Module 6 – Line functions (continued) OBJECTIVES AND FUNCTIONS OF PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS The number and extent of functional activities undertaken by public institutions are determined by various factors such as: • Ideologies of political parties and interest groups; • Physical characteristics of the state; • Social conditions, such as the number and density of the population; and • International political developments. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 6 – Line functions (continued) FUNCTIONAL/LINE FUNCTIONS CARRIED OUT BY ADMINISTRATIVE EXECUTIVE INSTITUTIONS

Module 6 – Line functions (continued) FUNCTIONAL/LINE FUNCTIONS CARRIED OUT BY ADMINISTRATIVE EXECUTIVE INSTITUTIONS The line functions of public institutions are: • Keeping law and order; • Regulation of labour affairs; • Protection functions; • Agriculture, forestry and water affairs; • Educational services; • Transport; and • Health services; • Public works and land affairs. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 6 – Line functions (continued) CONCLUSION Government institutions are established to improve the

Module 6 – Line functions (continued) CONCLUSION Government institutions are established to improve the general welfare of society through service delivery. There is an increasing need for public services because of population growth and because communities are relatively far behind in respect of the needs being met. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 7 – Government relations PLACE OF GOVERNMENTAL RELATIONSHIPS All spheres of government have

Module 7 – Government relations PLACE OF GOVERNMENTAL RELATIONSHIPS All spheres of government have to co-operate with one another in mutual trust and good faith by fostering friendly relations and by informing and consulting one another on matters of common interest. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 7 – Government relations (continued) RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CENTRAL, PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES The

Module 7 – Government relations (continued) RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CENTRAL, PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES The Constitution obliges the provincial government to promote the development and capacity of the local government. The Local government and Central government should maintain an open, co-operative and constructive relationship rather than a competitive relationship. www. futuremanagers. com

Module 7 – Government relations (continued) CONCLUSION The Constitution obliges the local government to

Module 7 – Government relations (continued) CONCLUSION The Constitution obliges the local government to provide services in a sustainable manner. To fulfil this constitutional obligation, the provincial government should play a significant role in strengthening the capacity of its municipalities which would enable them to deliver public services effectively and efficiently. www. futuremanagers. com