Public Administration, Judicial Administration and Management Theory Selected Issues in Judicial Administration GS/Law 6720 3. 0 December 8, 2008
Presentations • Carl Baar, “Integrated Justice: Privatizing the Fundamentals”, (1999) 42 Canadian Public Administration 42 -68: David Rudoler • Michael Jordan, “Ontario’s Integrated Justice Project: Profile of a Complex Partnership Agreement, ” (1999) 42 Canadian Public Administration 26 -41: Alia Ahmed • Mary Parker Follett, “The Process of Control” (London School of Economics, 1932), later published in L. Gulick and L. Urwick, Papers on the Science of Administration (1938): Hilary Cameron • James P. Womack, Daniel T. Jones, and Daniel Roos, The Machine That Changed the World (New York: Harper Perennial, 1991), Chap. 1, pp. 11 -15: Judy Verbeeten
Toyota’s Success Lean Production • In 1990 (when book first published), Toyota was ½ size of GM. • Now Toyota has surpassed GM as world’s largest automaker and is most successful global enterprise of past 50 years. • Toyota’s success attributed to its lean production system.
Other Forms of Production: Craft Production & Mass Production • Craft production – uses highly skilled workers – needs flexible tools – makes customized products (low volume) • Mass production – uses narrowly skilled professionals to design products made by unskilled/semiskilled workers – needs expensive, single-purpose machines – makes standardized products (high volume)
Lean Production • combines advantages of both – craft production without the high cost – mass production without the rigidity
Lean Production Efficiencies (versus Mass Production) • uses less (½) of everything – – – human effort manufacturing space investment in tools new product development time inventory on site • results in fewer defects • produces greater variety of products
Lean Production Ultimate Objectives (versus Mass Production) • goal of mass production good enough – acceptable # defects, maximum level of inventories – narrow range of standardized products – avoid doing better would increase costs and exceed human capabilities • goal of lean production perfection – zero defects, zero inventories – endless product variety – seek improvement/perfection look to decrease costs and expand human capabilities
Work under Lean Production • key objective of lean production is to push responsibility far down the organizational ladder • responsibility = freedom to control one’s work + anxiety re making costly mistakes • must learn more professional skills and apply them creatively in a team setting (not in a rigid hierarchy)
Lean Production • two organizational features – transfers maximum number of tasks and responsibilities to those workers actually adding value to the care on the line – has system for detecting defects that traces every problem to its ultimate cause • consists of all members within the system sharing information and resources in a team-oriented multifunctional environment
Lean Production (cont’d) • worker must learn far more professional skills and apply these creatively in a team setting rather than in a rigid hierarchy • paradox better employee is at teamwork, the less he may know about a specific, narrow specialty • employees must be offered continuing variety of challenges or else may feel they reached a dead end and will hold back their know-how and commitment negates the main advantage of lean production
Lean Production (cont’d) • welds the activities of everyone from top management to line workers, to suppliers, into a tightly integrated whole that can respond almost instantly to marketing demands from customers • it can double production and quality, while keeping costs down
Contradictory Goals of Lean Production • please the customers by offering wide variety of models while reducing costs • must make smaller quantities of a product without increasing cost • need relentless dedication on the part of all employees to reduce costs – inventory holding costs JIT delivery system – retooling time for new model start building equipment pieces before design of new car completed – 1/3 fewer hours to produce Japanese versus US car
Shortcomings of Lean Production • overemphasizes aspects of savings & mechanization • neglects categories such as know-how & innovation • brings about short-term improvement in efficiency, but not long-term increase in productivity
Lean Production Unsuited to Dismantling Complexity • if want to reduce complexity of serialized production steps through individualized manufacture must understand more expansive processes in their entirety • in theory highly innovative and flexible business organization with no hierarchy = company of the future • in practice weaknesses of lean production present
Lean Production Taken to Extreme • would lead to a lot size of one, returning to the craft production system whereby each care was made to the buyer’s specifications
Lean Production Adoption • adoption of lean production has spread beyond the auto industry • lean production can be used not only in manufacturing, but also in every value-creating activity from health care to retail to distribution …. to integrated justice (technological) processes?