Public Administration, Judicial Administration and Management Theory Selected Issues in Judicial Administration GS/Law 6720 3. 0 December 8, 2008
Presentations • Carl Baar, “Integrated Justice: Privatizing the Fundamentals”, (1999) 42 Canadian Public Administration 42 -68: David Rudoler • Mary Parker Follett, “The Process of Control” (London School of Economics, 1932), later published in L. Gulick and L. Urwick, Papers on the Science of Administration (1938): Hilary Cameron • James P. Womack, Daniel T. Jones, and Daniel Roos, The Machine That Changed the World (New York: Harper Perennial, 1991), Chap. 1, pp. 11 -15: Judy Verbeeten
Peter Mc. Cormick, “New Questions about an Old Concept: The Supreme Court of Canada’s Judicial Independence Decisions” 37(4): Canadian Journal of Political Science 839 -862
Abstract • In the age of the Charter, courts are an important part of the policy process, and judicial independence is the concept that structures the interactions between courts and other institutions. • Historically, judicial independence in Canada was modelled on (and little different from) that of England; but politically-led reforms in the 1970 s, and a string of more than a dozen Supreme Court decisions centred on the 1997 Remuneration Reference, are transforming the concept. • At the same time, a parallel string of cases extends more limited but essentially similar guarantees to some other administrative bodies. • Together, these developments represent an important and enduring change in the Canadian political landscape.
Judicial Independence - English Style: Prototype Created by Act of Settlement (1701) BASIC ELEMENTS: First: judges hold office on good behaviour and are (almost) impossible to remove, and then only for cause. Second: salaries set by Parliament (for all judges on same bench, not for individual judges). Third: judges not answerable to government or bureaucracy for judicial matters. Fourth: judges drawn from/part of aggressively independent legal profession (implied). Fifth: judicial discretion limited by “formalism” as guiding principle (implied) judges applied, but did not modify rules.
Judicial Independence - Canadian Style: Direct Copy of English Experience Sections 96 – 100 of the Constitution Act, 1867 closely parallel the relevant terms of the Act of Settlement. • Judges of provincial superior courts appointed from provincial bars. • Judges serve on good behaviour for life (or mandatory retirement age). • Judges removable only for cause. • Salaries established by Parliament.
Judicial Independence - Canadian Style: Omissions §Judicial independence applies only to English superior courts and Canada’s provincial superior courts (and SCC). §Candidate for bench, must come from the bar, but. . . § other aspects informing the appointment decision? § considerations re elevating judges to a higher court? §No provision for disciplining judges except for dismissal. §Nothing about managing judge-government & judge-court staff relations. §Nothing about setting or administration of the budget & setting of judicial salaries.
Judicial Independence - Canadian Style: The 1970 s & 1980 s Restructuring of SCC §More experienced judges. §More likely to have had judicial experience. §Less likely to have been directly involved in politics. §New style of judicial decision-making formalism ; contextualism Major changes to court system §Judicialization of magistrate courts recognize of judicial independence. §Judicial councils created screened judicial appointments, investigated complaints against judges. §Chief Judge of Provincial Court institutional buffer between government & judges. Changes §Changes statutory & not constitutionally entrenched. §Politically driven (provincial & federal).
Impact of the Charter (1982) § The Charter (s. 11(d)) specifically guaranteed a person’s right to “an open and public trial before an independent and impartial tribunal. ” § Valente (1985) identified 3 key elements of judicial independence: § Security of tenure. § Financial security. § Institutional independence on matters bearing directly on the exercise of the judicial function. § Valente read the politically-driven reforms of the 1970 s back into the Constitution itself (s. 11(d) of the Charter).
The Supreme Court’s Judicial Independence Cases The consolidation decision: Valente (1985). The “details” decisions: Beauregard (1986), Mac. Keigan (1989), Lippé (1991), Généreux (1992), Ruffo (1995). The “blockbuster”: Remuneration Reference (1997). The follow-up decisions: Tobiass (1997), 974649 Ontario (2001), Therrien (2001), Mackin (2002), Moreau-Berube (2002), Ell (2003). The next wave? : Bodner (2004).
The “Details” Decisions Beauregard (1986) ▪judicial pensions addressed Mack. Keigan (1989) ▪Donald Marshall inquiry ▪judges do not have to give any account to government other than their written reasons for judgment ▪judges are accountable only to judicial councils Lippe (1991) ▪part-time judges approved Genereux (1992) ▪military officer-judges accepted ▪not all tribunals have to be independent to same extent Ruffo (1995) ▪existing interactions between chief judges and judicial councils validated
Remuneration Reference 1997: Novel Elements First: a new grounding: “an unwritten constitutional principle” exterior to any specific section. Second: a new location: the preamble (“similar in principle to that of the United Kingdom”). Third: a new judicial function: “protectors of the Constitution. ” Fourth: a new dimension: a constrained role for chief judges. Fifth: a new basic principle: no relationship between the government and the court, involving even the appearance of negotiation. Sixth: new institutional structure: Judicial Salary Commission.
Judicial Independence: New Style What are the new issues? First: judicial salaries (settled in Remuneration) Second: court facilities (the BC skirmish) Third: court budgets and administration (Bodner) Fourth: constraining chief judges (Tobiass) Fifth: empowering judicial councils (Ell, Moreau-Berubé) Sixth: the judicial career (appointments/promotions)
The Supreme Court’s Cases Dealing with Independence of Other Institutions Labour relations board: Consolidated Bathurst (1990), Ellis-Don (2001) Social affairs commission: Tremblay (1992) Administrative tribunal: Domtar (1993) Liquor licensing board: 2747 -3174 Quebec Inc. (1996), Ocean Port (2001) Public utilities board: Wells (1999) Ad hoc arbitrations board: C. U. P. E. v. Ontario (2003) Human rights tribunal: Canadian Telephone Employees (2003) Forest appeals commission: Paul (2003) Workers compensation appeals tribunal: Martin (2003) Residential tenancy tribunal: Mc. Kenzie (2006)
Judicial Independence & Judicial Career § Independence of the judiciary clearly depends on the way judges are selected, but…. . § Party political connections often play a part in selection of judges. § Elevations (to chief justiceship, or to a higher court) are more problematic worry that particular decision(s) could affect prospects. § Black v. Chretien (2001) Ont CA - Laskin, Goudge, Feldman.
Black v. Chretien (2001) § Tony Blair advised the Queen to elevate Conrad Black to the British Peerage. § Chretien intervened and advised the Queen not to confer the peerage on Black. § Queen, therefore, declined to ennoble Black. § Black sued PM & AG of Canada for abuse of power. § Ont CA rejected Black’s case on the grounds that the advice tendered to the Queen by Chretien was non-justiciable.
L. Sossin – A Comment on Black v. Chretien (2002) 47 Mc. Gill L. J. 435 § Author is critical of court’s use of doctrine of justiciability to shield executive officials from judicial review. § Author maintains that justiciability should solely depend on legitimacy & capacity of courts to adjudicate a matter. In his opinion, Black’s claim against the PM was justiciable. § To allow such abuses of power to remain immune from judicial scrutiny appears on its face to eviscerate the supremacy of the rule of law. § Can Roncarelli and Black be reconciled? § Did the potential impact on the judges’ chances of being named to SCC if they found against PM Chretien, affect their decision?
Toyota’s Success Lean Production • In 1990 (when book first published), Toyota was ½ size of GM. • Now Toyota has surpassed GM as world’s largest automaker and is most successful global enterprise of past 50 years. • Toyota’s success attributed to its lean production system.
Other Forms of Production: Craft Production & Mass Production • Craft production – uses highly skilled workers – needs flexible tools – makes customized products (low volume) • Mass production – uses narrowly skilled professionals to design products made by unskilled/semiskilled workers – needs expensive, single-purpose machines – makes standardized products (high volume)
Lean Production • combines advantages of both – craft production without the high cost – mass production without the rigidity
Lean Production Efficiencies (versus Mass Production) • uses less (½) of everything – – – human effort manufacturing space investment in tools new product development time inventory on site • results in fewer defects • produces greater variety of products
Lean Production Ultimate Objectives (versus Mass Production) • goal of mass production good enough – acceptable # defects, maximum level of inventories – narrow range of standardized products – avoid doing better would increase costs and exceed human capabilities • goal of lean production perfection – zero defects, zero inventories – endless product variety – seek improvement/perfection look to decrease costs and expand human capabilities
Work under Lean Production • key objective of lean production is to push responsibility far down the organizational ladder • responsibility = freedom to control one’s work + anxiety re making costly mistakes • must learn more professional skills and apply them creatively in a team setting (not in a rigid hierarchy)
Lean Production • two organizational features – transfers maximum number of tasks and responsibilities to those workers actually adding value to the care on the line – has system for detecting defects that traces every problem to its ultimate cause • consists of all members within the system sharing information and resources in a team-oriented multifunctional environment
Lean Production (cont’d) • worker must learn far more professional skills and apply these creatively in a team setting rather than in a rigid hierarchy • paradox better employee is at teamwork, the less he may know about a specific, narrow specialty • employees must be offered continuing variety of challenges or else may feel they reached a dead end and will hold back their know-how and commitment negates the main advantage of lean production
Lean Production (cont’d) • welds the activities of everyone from top management to line workers, to suppliers, into a tightly integrated whole that can respond almost instantly to marketing demands from customers • it can double production and quality, while keeping costs down
Contradictory Goals of Lean Production • please the customers by offering wide variety of models while reducing costs • must make smaller quantities of a product without increasing cost • need relentless dedication on the part of all employees to reduce costs – inventory holding costs JIT delivery system – retooling time for new model start building equipment pieces before design of new car completed – 1/3 fewer hours to produce Japanese versus US car
Shortcomings of Lean Production • overemphasizes aspects of savings & mechanization • neglects categories such as know-how & innovation • brings about short-term improvement in efficiency, but not long-term increase in productivity
Lean Production Unsuited to Dismantling Complexity • if want to reduce complexity of serialized production steps through individualized manufacture must understand more expansive processes in their entirety • in theory highly innovative and flexible business organization with no hierarchy = company of the future • in practice weaknesses of lean production present
Lean Production Taken to Extreme • would lead to a lot size of one, returning to the craft production system whereby each care was made to the buyer’s specifications
Lean Production Adoption • adoption of lean production has spread beyond the auto industry • lean production can be used not only in manufacturing, but also in every value-creating activity from health care to retail to distribution …. to integrated justice (technological) processes?