- Slides: 15
Types of psychosocial modes Self – Concept Mode (it focuses specifically on the psychological and spiritual aspects of person) Role Function Mode (it focuses on the roles the person occupies in society) Interdependence Mode (it focuses on interactions related to the giving and receiving of love, respect and nurturance)
1. 1. The physical self 1. 1. 1. Body sensation (ability to feel and to experience oneself as a physical being and its response to changes in health status – “I feel sick”, “I feel exhausted”) 1. 1. 2. Body image (how one sees one’s body and its parts in terms of size, appearance and functioning – “My nose is too long”, “I’m 15 pounds overweight”) It is influenced by feedback from others as well as cultural and societal values.
1. 2. The personal self 1. 2. 1. Self – consistency (it allows people to act and express feelings in fairly stable or predictable patterns as they carry out activities of daily living – “I don’t anticipate any problems with surgery”) 1. 2. 2. Self – ideal (what one would like to be or is capable of being or achieving. It serves as a guide to achieving goals – “ I would like to be able to walk without crutches”, “I want to get 12 in every subject”) 1. 2. 3. Moral – ethical – spiritual self (it includes one’s belief system and an evaluation of who one is. It learns to tell right from wrong and to set standards for behavior – “I believe that abortion is wrong”, “I must have done something bad to deserve this”)
Self - Esteem Development of the personal self leads to feelings of self – esteem or the overall perception of one’s worth. High self – esteem (self – assured, effective in solving problems, trusting, friendly, unselfish, happy, sincere, productive, independent, realistic view of the world, optimistic, hopeful) Low self – esteem (poor view of self, lack of control, distrusting, demanding, self – centered, angry, depressive, isolated from others, pessimistic, helpless, depending upon others)
Common problems in Self – Concept Mode Body Sensation and Body Image: Nursing diagnosis: Body image disturbance Anticipatory grieving Dysfunctional grieving Feeling of loss of function or body part, or of loss of control, grieving Self – Consistency Nursing diagnosis: Anxiety Fear Ineffective coping (usual coping mech. aren’t working) Feelings that express anxiety (anger, sadness, fears, depression, worry) Self – Ideal Nursing diagnosis: Hopelessness Powerlessness Feelings that express powerlessness, hopelessness, frustration or anger.
Common problems in Self – Concept Mode Moral –Ethical – Spiritual Self: Nursing diagnosis: Spiritual distress Feelings that express guilt or shame
Role Function Mode 1. 2. 3. Role – is the pattern of behavior expected in order to occupy a given position in society Why do we assess role function? Patients frequently are required to take on temporary roles: sick role, student role Patients or clients may acquire a new permanent role: mother, diabetic Patients may need to change a role: widow, breadwinner
Identify the Roles Primary Role: filled as a result of developmental stage, determines most of your behaviors during a particular period of your life (age and sex – adolescent male, elderly female, generative female) Secondary Role: the major roles played in a certain developmental stage, and certain tasks must be accomplished to fulfill these roles (mother, father, brother). Chronic illness fits here (diabetic, cancer, paralysis) Tertiary Roles: temporary, usually associated with secondary, but may also be associated with primary. Usually chosen to fulfill a minor task in a developmental stage, such as room mother.
Interdependence Mode Interdependence is v A comfortable balance with others v Feeling adequate and secure in relationship with other people – “able to give and take” v Being loved and supported yet able to love and nurture others as well as oneself v Belonging – affiliated within a given group
Components of the Mode A. Significant others ( individuals or groups to whom importance is ascribed or inherent in the interaction – parent, family, friend, lover) B. Support system (persons, groups, animals, who support the individual irrespective of whether behaviors are adaptive or ineffective)
Needs that are met in a functionally interdependent person To be trusted and believed, and to rust and believe in others To be loved, nurtured and supported, and to love, nurture and support others To be understood and to win approval from others, and to understand approve of the self To be needed by others and to recognize one’s own needs from others
Purpose The purpose of interdependence is to be responded to by another and/or to establish an in – depth interaction with another person. It has characteristics of protection, caring, proximity, physical contact, recognition, praise, approval.
Major tasks To live successfully in a world of other people, animals and objects To recognize one’s own dependent and independent needs as well as those of other people. The mastery of learning to live with others leads to feelings of security and adequacy in the individual
The effect of illness and hospitalization Physically isolated surrounded by strangers visiting hours procedures that are intimate