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Psychology What is autism? What is aspers? What is tourettes? How are they similar and different? • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=lb. Xj. Wc. X 9 k. Q&feature= • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=g 89 YYi. C 7 P 6 Y&feature=related • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ry. Q 0 tfj. Xnk Y&feature=related • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=p. RL 1 bx. X 6 tb A&feature=related • https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=ts. Ke 6 sw 72
Psychology What is autism? • Autism is a lifelong developmental disability. It is part of the autism spectrum and is sometimes referred to as an autism spectrum disorder, or an ASD. • The three main areas of difficulty which all people with autism share sometimes known as the 'triad of impairments'. They are: • difficulty with social communication • difficulty with social interaction • difficulty with social imagination.
Psychology Core study: Another advanced test of theory of mind: evidence from very high functioning adults with autism or Asperger syndrome By Simon Baron-Cohen, Joliffe, Mortimore, and Robertson
Psychology More about the man: • Simon Baron-Cohen is a professor of developmental psychopathology in the departments of psychiatry and experimental psychology, a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and director of the Autism Research Centre at the University of Cambridge • He is best known for his work on autism, including his early theory that autism involves degrees of 'mindblindness' (or delays in the development of theory of mind), and his later theory that autism is an extreme form of the 'male brain', which involved a reconceptualization of typical psychological sex differences in terms of empathy and systemizing.
Psychology Aim • To provide support for the cognitive explanation of autism, specifically that autistic adults lack advanced theory of mind skills. • What is theory of mind?
Psychology Background Theory of mind • ‘Theory of mind is being able to put yourself in somebody else's shoes, being able to imagine what's going on in his or her mind. ’ Baron-Cohen • Ability to do this generally appears at the end of the first year of life. • Deficit is believed to be core to an Autism diagnosis. • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Qjk. TQtgg. LH 4
Psychology Previous research • Baron-Cohen (1992) found that no participants passed the second-order theory of mind test. • Ozonoff et al. (1991) found that adults with ‘high functioning autism’ or Asperger Syndrome passed theory of mind tests. • Happé (1994) used an advanced theory of mind test and found that adults with autism or Asperger’s Syndrome did less well than the matched control group.
Psychology Aim • A secondary aim was to investigate whether females would be better than males!
Psychology Participants • There were three groups of participants. • All had normal (>85) intelligence on Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test. • 16 Adults with High functioning autism/Asperger’s Syndrome • 13 males: 3 females • recruited by advert and clinics • 10 adults with Tourette’s Syndrome • age matched • 8 males: 2 females • 50 normal adults (from Cambridge) • 25 males: 25 females • assumed normal intelligence
Psychology Why did Baron-Cohen use participants with Tourette’s Syndrome? • Read pages 22 • List the reasons why this group was used • Do you think it was a good idea?
Psychology Why did Baron-Cohen use participants with Tourette’s Syndrome? • Tourettes participants were used as Tourette’s Syndrome and autism are similar and using both would control some of the extraneous variables. • Both Tourette’s Syndrome and autism participants: • had normal intelligence • suffered with disorder from childhood • had disorders that disrupted schooling and peer relations • had disorders supposed to originate in frontal lobe • abnormalities. • Participants in both clinical groups had passed Theory of Mind tests based on 6 -year-old Theory of mind skills.
Psychology The tasks 1. Eyes task 2. Happe’s strange stories 3. Gender recognition task 4. Basic emotion recognition task
Psychology Adult Eyes Instructions For each set of eyes, choose and circle which word best describes what the person in the picture is thinking or feeling. You may feel that more than one word is applicable but please choose just one word, the word which you consider to be most suitable. Before making your choice, make sure that you have read all 4 words. You should try to do the task as quickly as possible but you will not be timed. If you really don’t know what a word means you can look it up in the definition handout.
Psychology HAPPE’S STRANGE STORIES
Psychology Katie and Emma are playing in the house. Emma picks up a banana from the fruit bowl and holds it up to her ear. She says to Katie “Look! This banana is a telephone!” • Is it true what Emma says? Yes/No/Don’t know • Why does Emma say this?
Psychology Today James is going to Claire’s house for the first time. He is going over for tea, and he is looking forward to seeing Claire’s dog, which she talks about all time. James likes dogs very much. When James arrives at Claire’s house Claire runs to open the door, and her dog jumps up to greet James. Claire’s dog is huge; it’s almost as big as James! When James sees Claire’s huge dog he says, “Claire, you haven’t got a dog at all. You’ve got an elephant!” • Is it true, what James says? Yes/No/Don’t know • Why does he say this?
Psychology One day Aunt Jane came to visit Peter. Now Peter loves his aunt very much, but today she is wearing a new hat; a new hat, which Peter thinks is very ugly indeed. Peter thinks his aunt looks silly in it, and much nicer in her old hat. But when Aunt Jane asks Peter, “How do you like my new hat”, Peter says, “Oh, it’s very nice”. • Was it true, what Peter said? Yes/No/Don’t know • Why did he say it?
Psychology Emma has a cough. All through lunch she coughs and coughs. Father says: “Poor Emma, you must have a frog in your throat!” • Is it true, what Father says to Emma? Yes/No/Don’t know • Why does he say that?
Psychology Ann’s mother has spent a long time cooking Ann’s favourite meal; fish and chips. But when she brings it to Ann, she is watching TV, and she doesn’t even look up, or say thank you. Ann’s mother is cross and says, “Well, that’s very nice, isn’t it! That is what I call politeness!” • Is it true what Ann’s mother says? Yes/No/Don’t know • Why does Ann’s mother say this?
Psychology Late one night old Mrs. Peabody is walking home. She doesn’t like walking alone in the dark because she is always afraid that someone will attack her and rob her. She is really very nervous! Suddenly, out of the shadow comes a man. He wants to ask Mrs. Peabody what time it is, so he walks towards her. When Mrs. Peabody sees the man coming towards her, she starts to tremble and says, “Take my purse, just don’t hurt me”. • Was the man surprised at what Mrs. Peabody said? Yes/No/Don’t know • Why did she say that, when he only wanted to ask her the time?
Psychology Yvonne is playing in the garden with her doll. She leaves her doll in the garden when her mother calls her to come in for lunch. While they are having lunch, it starts to rain. Yvonne’s mother asks Yvonne: “Did you leave your doll in the garden? ”Yvonne answers: “No, I brought her in with me”. • Is it true, what Yvonne says? Yes/No/Don’t know • Why does Yvonne say this?
Psychology The architect Ken Peterson is known as a person rich in ideas. He works with Solnes, a master builder who has his office in the town. He goes to Solnes almost daily with new ideas about how to build bigger and better buildings. The idea-rich architect uses steel and glass as construction materials, because they are the materials that can give the most protection against storms and bad weather. With these materials it is possible to build fine, big buildings. Wooden material and roof tiles are well suited for the construction of normal single-floored dwellings, he says. • Question: Why doesn’t architect Peterson use wooden material and roof tiles when projecting high buildings?
Psychology John Frank is 25 years old and tunes all kinds of pianos. He is the only piano tuner in the town, and his clients must normally wait a week before he can do the work they desire. Usually he carries out his work in the homes of the clients. One day an old lady calls him. She presents herself as Mrs. Agnes Lind, and says that she would like to have her piano tuned. She tells John her address. Some minutes previously a small job John was to do this morning in the concert house had been cancelled. A few minutes later he arrives at Mrs. Lind’s villa. Question: Why doesn’t Mrs. Lind have to wait a week to have her piano tuned?
Psychology One late, dark autumn evening the 14 year old Paul is going along some scary town streets with his mother. They have heard and read of people who have been robbed of their money in this area. Earlier that day Paul’s mother has been to the bank and made a withdrawal of 8000 NOK. She has placed the money in an inside coat pocket instead of in her handbag. Her old washing machine broke down for good a couple of days ago, and she has to buy a new one in one of the coming days. Question: Why has Paul’s mother been to the bank and made a withdrawal?
Psychology Gender –recognition Male or female? Same pictures.
Psychology Basic emotions
Psychology Which one(s) are the DV(s), control(s)? • Eyes task • Happe’s strange stories • Gender recognition task • Basic emotion recognition task
Psychology Hypotheses 1. Patients with Tourette’s Syndrome would be unimpaired on this advanced theory of mind test, but the subjects with autism or Asperger’s Syndrome would show a significant impairment on this test. 2. Subjects who had difficulties when completing the Eyes task or Strange Stories task should also have difficulties when completing the other task. 3. Normal females may be superior to normal males in emotion perception.
Psychology • What was the point of the Happe’s strange stories test? • What is the difference between the eyes test and the basic emotion recoginition task?
Psychology Method: • The Eyes task, Strange Stories task and two control tasks were presented in random order to all subjects. • WHY? • Need to avoid ORDER EFFECTS • Subjects were tested in a quiet room either at home, in clinic or in a laboratory.
Psychology DESIGN: • What do you think it is? • Independent design • The independent varied naturally and was not manipulated therefore the method used was a QUASI EXPERIMENT: • research design having some but not all of the characteristics of a true experiment. The element most frequently missing is random assignment of subjects to the control and experimental conditions.
Psychology What are the variables involved in this study?
Psychology Independent and dependent variables • Independent variables: • autism • Tourette’s Syndrome • normal • gender in normal group • Dependent variables: • correct identification of emotion • correct identification of gender
Psychology Results • Look at the results • What conclusions can you draw? Write them down.
Psychology The Autism/AS impairment is NOT due to: * Low intelligence as performance on the Eyes Task was not correlated with IQ. * The result of just any developmental neuropsychiatric disability as Tourette participants were unimpaired on the test. * Having difficultly interpreting context – there was no context so this was a relatively pure TOM task. Additionally: * No support for a link between TOM and frontal brain processing. Tourette participants had no greater difficulty than normal participants.
Psychology Was The Eyes Task valid? The researchers claim that the Eyes Task was a valid measure of theory of mind. * The target words are mental state terms. * The target words are not just emotional states but include terms describing cognitive mental states, suggesting that this task is not just an emotion perception task. * The pattern of results from the Eyes task mirror those of the strange stories task, another advanced test for theory of mind. * The poor performance on the Eyes Task was not mirrored on the two control tasks, suggesting that poor performance is not due to the stimuli being eyes, or to basic emotion recognition.
Psychology Conclusions • Adults with autism/Asperger’s Syndrome were impaired on the Theory of Mind test. • As only autism/Asperger’s Syndrome made errors on both the Eyes task and the Strange Stories task, this validates the Eyes task. • Normal females better than normal males on Theory of Mind test. • Intelligence is not linked with performance (some of the autism group had university degrees).
Psychology EVALUATION • What were the strengths of this study? • Weaknesses? • Make a table in your book and list the strengths and weaknesses
Psychology Extras • http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=crm. DSDe. CE p 4 • Is autism severe “male brain”?