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PSYCHOLOGY Chapter 9 LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT Power. Point Image Slideshow
FIGURE 9. 1 How have you changed since childhood? How are you the same? What will your life be like 25 years from now? Fifty years from now? Lifespan development studies how you change as well as how you remain the same over the course of your life. (credit: modification of work by Giles Cook)
CHAPTER TOPICS q. What is Social and Cognitive Development through our life span? q. What is attachment? q. Infancy and Childhood. q. Adolescence. q. Adulthood and Older Age. q. We will cover several theorists.
PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT How genetic and environmental factors interact to shape us before we are even born
PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT • Organisms grow as they change • fertilized egg • embryo • fetus • Development is guided by the genome, but environmental factors are also crucial.
PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT • Local environmental factors • Prenatal care • Global environmental factors • example: presence of teratogens, factors that disrupt development
INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD • In humans, growth and brain maturation continue long after birth. • This long period of development is advantageous for humans’ specialization. • Some researchers believe this increases the human animal’s capacity for learning
INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD • Infants’ reflexes (motor development) help them through the initial period of helplessness. • examples: grasp reflex, rooting reflex, sucking reflex. • These reflexes help with self-regulation. • They also have mature sensory capacities.
FIGURE 9. 2 The concept of continuous development can be visualized as a smooth slope of progression, whereas discontinuous development sees growth in more discrete stages.
FIGURE 9. 3 All children across the world love to play. Whether in (a) Florida or (b) South Africa, children enjoy exploring sand, sunshine, and the sea. (credit a: modification of work by “Visit St. Pete/Clearwater”/Flickr; credit b: modification of work by “stringer_bel”/Flickr)
FIGURE 9. 4 Erikson proposed the psychosocial theory of development. In each stage of Erikson’s theory, there is a psychosocial task that we must master in order to feel a sense of competence.
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT q. Researchers who focus on cognitive development study the growth of the child’s understanding. q. Jean Piaget (1936) was the first known psychologist to study.
FIGURE 9. 5 Jean Piaget spent over 50 years studying children and how their minds develop.
JEAN PIAGET q. Psychologist. Born 1896 and died 1980. q. He was concerned with: How does knowledge grow? q. He believed the growth of knowledge is a progressive construction of logically embedded structures superseding one another by a process of inclusion of lower, less powerful logical means into higher, more powerful means up to adulthood.
JEAN PIAGET q. In the context of a developing person, children’s logic is entirely different than an adults logic. In other words, children do not think or perceive the world like an adult does. qhttps: //youtu. be/br. NQZjsrdi 4 qhttps: //youtu. be/Bu 5 fy 7 GGCT 4
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • Jean Piaget’s theory • sensorimotor period (birth to 2 years) • concept of object permanence • preoperational period (ages 2 to 7 years) • Children are capable of representational thought but lack the ability to organize that thought. • example: inability to conserve number and quantity
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • Jean Piaget’s theory (cont. ) • At about age 7 years, children begin to manipulate mental representations. • They remain in the concrete operational period, which lacks an element of abstractness, until about age 12 years. • They understand conservation (amount of something remains the same despite appearance) and reversibility.
LEV VYGOTSKY q. Social Development Theory (published in USA in 1962). q. Social interaction plays a strong role in cognitive development. q. According to Vygotsky, “Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological).
VYGOTSKY q“This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals. " qhttps: //youtu. be/Bu 5 fy 7 GGCT 4
LAWRENCE KOHLBERG q. Theory of Moral Development (1958) q. Kohlberg believed. . . and was able to demonstrate through studies. . . that people progressed in their moral reasoning (i. e. , in their bases for ethical behavior) through a series of stages. He believed that there were six identifiable stages which could be more generally classified into three levels
FIGURE 9. 6 Kohlberg identified three levels of moral reasoning: pre-conventional, and post-conventional: Each level is associated with increasingly complex stages of moral development.
KOHLBERG’S MORAL DEVELOPMENT q. Level 1. Preconventional Morality • Stage 1 - Obedience and Punishment The earliest stage of moral development is especially common in young children, but adults are also capable of expressing this type of reasoning. At this stage, children see rules as fixed and absolute. Obeying the rules is important because it is a means to avoid punishment.
STAGE 2 q. Stage 2 - Individualism and Exchange At this stage of moral development, children account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs. In the Heinz dilemma, children argued that the best course of action was the choice that best-served Heinz’s needs. Reciprocity is possible at this point in moral development, but only if it serves one's own interests.
LEVEL 2: CONVENTIONAL MORALITY q. Stage 3 - Interpersonal Relationships Often referred to as the "good boy-good girl" orientation, this stage of moral development is focused on living up to social expectations and roles. There is an emphasis on conformity, being "nice, " and consideration of how choices influence relationships
KOHLBERG (CON’T) q. Stage 4 - Maintaining Social Order At this stage of moral development, people begin to consider society as a whole when making judgments. The focus is on maintaining law and order by following the rules, doing one’s duty and respecting authority.
LEVEL 3: POST-CONVENTIONL MORALITY q. Stage 5 - Social Contract and Individual Rights At this stage, people begin to account for the differing values, opinions, and beliefs of other people. Rules of law are important for maintaining a society, but members of the society should agree upon these standards
KOHLBERG (CON’T) q. Stage 6 - Universal Principles Kohlberg’s final level of moral reasoning is based upon universal ethical principles and abstract reasoning. At this stage, people follow these internalized principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules.
CAROL GILLIGAN q. Formulated in 1982 and in response to Kohlberg’s theory. His theory was based on what men and boys think. She wanted to add girls and women.
CURRENT THEORIES q. Robert Sternberg q. Professor of Human Development at Cornell q. Theory stems from how the education system in the USA teaches and tests learners. q. He does not believe these current methods adequately label people.
STERNBERG q. In his own words qhttps: //youtu. be/yjx. K 5 GWrl 6 M
MARY ROTHBART q. Professor of Developmental Psychology q. Theory of Temperament q. Temperament is defined as your ability to self-regulate based on your genetics, biology, and neurocognitive factors. q. When you are born your temperament is composed of continuums for three constructs:
ROTHBART THREE CONTINUUMS q. Stop, think, and act (attention system) versus impulsive and reactive. q. Surgency (out going and externalizing) versus shy and inhibited. q. Negative affect versus positive affect. qhttps: //youtu. be/rzg. Hhh. U-GQY q. Explanation by Dr. Jerome Kagan qj
ROTHBART THEORY q. As a baby begins to interact with all the factors within their world, their brain and temperament begins to be shaped in response to this world. q. Self-regulation and the development of this self-regulation is key. q. Also remember brain plasticity and experience-dependent synaptogenesis.
REACTIVE AND DYSREGULATED
SELF-REGULATION DEFINED q. The developmental course and assimilation of emotional and cognitive modulation, an ability to delay and consider alternative responses and gratifications, the ability to integrate and use behavioral insight regarding moral values and empathy, and the employment and management of executive functions to direct skill sets controlled by the systems of attention and working memory.
ATTENTION q. Attention takes a large part in this neurodevelopmental theory. q. The human attention system actually has two systems, and is made up of over 22 different jobs.
ATTENTION q. Attention takes a large part in this neurodevelopmental theory. q. The human attention system actually has two systems, and is made up of over 22 different jobs.
TEMPERAMENT q. We grow our through the intricate system of neurobiology, genetics, social, emotional, cognitive, and cultural factors. q. Research has shown temperament for people is the same at 3 yo, 21 yo, and long into adulthood. q. Research has also shown this is true for both genders and across cultures.
BABIES ARE AWARE q. Researchers at U of O have found that parental bickering appears to have a visible effect on babies’ brains—even when the little ones are sleeping. q. Parental conflict, which can often occur after a newborn joins the family, appears to affect how young brains respond to stressful stimuli, say the researchers.
THEORY OF MIND • Preschoolers have the rudiments of a theory of mind. • Limitations can be seen in children’s poor performance with false belief tasks. • https: //youtu. be/XDtj. LSa 50 uk • Demonstration • https: //youtu. be/RUpx. Zks. AMPw
SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT The child’s emerging capacity to function as a social and emotional being
EARLIEST INTERACTIONS • From a very early age, infants are interested in face-to-face interaction. • Social referencing • When infants begin to crawl (7 to 9 months), they begin to rely on facial cues. • for instance, if the infant crawls into a dangerous or inappropriate situation
EMPATHY SKILLS q. Recent research helps explain what seems so unimaginable. Psychologists talk about two types of empathy, cognitive and affective. Simply put, cognitive empathy is the intellectual ability to understand others’ points of view, whereas affective empathy is the emotional capacity to respond to the mental states of others.
EMPATHY SKILLS q. Although girls seem to develop more cognitive empathy at age 13, most boys don’t show signs of it until age 15. Boys also experience a dip in affective empathy between the ages of 13 and 16, according to a six-year study published recently in Developmental Psychology.
AFFECTIVE EMPATHY q. Affective empathy is grounded in the limbic region of the brain, which regulates emotions. This capacity begins developing in infancy when parents respond sensitively to babies' emotions. Children learn to practice empathy by watching their parents and by experiencing it themselves—being treated well by adults who respond warmly to their feelings, says psychologist Anthony Wolf.
COGNITIVE EMPATHY q. Cognitive empathy arises from a different part of the brain, the medial prefrontal cortex, which continues developing later, through adolescence. But the two are linked; children's affective empathy predicts their level of cognitive empathy as teens.
TEEN RISK TAKING q“The adolescent brain handles risky decision-making in similar ways to adults and children, ” says Jennifer Pfeifer of the University of Oregon. “However, the degree to which certain regions and processes are engaged during risky decision-making seems to vary, both with development and between individuals of the same age. ” q. Teens are more likely to take more risk in front of peers.
SEPARATION ANXIETY • Infants begin to feel separation anxiety between 6 and 8 months. • Bowlby: Infants have a need for contact comfort, which provides the infant with a secure base.
ATTACHMENT • Infants differ in their beliefs about the social world—or internal working models —and this is evident in different patterns of attachment.
ATTACHMENT • Attachment is assessed by observing behavior of children in the Strange Situation. • securely attached • anxious/resistant • anxious/avoidant attachment • disorganized pattern of attachment
ATTACHMENT qhttps: //youtu. be/kwxjfu. Pl. Ar. Y q. Strange situation: qhttps: //youtu. be/s 608077 Nt. NI
ATTACHMENT • Attachment styles are relatively stable, but they can change if the circumstances change. • Attachment style predicts many events in the child’s social and emotional development. • There is debate over the mechanisms behind these correlational findings.
ATTACHMENT • Differences in attachment are due to differences in: • temperament • caregiver responsiveness • Attachment with Dr Dan Siegel • https: //youtu. be/qg. YJ 82 k. QIyg? list=PLUu. ATc. N 5 sfug. U 6 NFv. YF 2 oc. HPIPlq 3 NQfv
ATTACHMENT STYLE IN ADULTS q. Research has shown that the attachment style we develop as a child is the attachment style we will have as an adult. q. This will affect our love relationships, friendships, work, etc. , especially the relationship we develop with ourselves. qhttps: //youtu. be/gb. YYg. IAw. Z 2 U
ROLE OF PARENTING STYLE • Parents differ in their parenting styles • authoritarian, permissive, authoritative, or disengaged • Parents’ style depends • partly on the parents • partly on the child’s characteristics • Evidence suggests that authoritative parenting is often preferable.
IMPACT OF CHILDCARE • Attachment does not seem to be disrupted by childcare, especially if it’s of high quality. • Social development may be disrupted by divorce or separation of the parents. • Development is more severely disrupted if there is no attachment at all. • example: Romanian orphanages
PEER RELATIONSHIPS • Friendships are important • provide support • help children gain various skills and knowledge • Example: children learn how to handle conflict by quarreling— and then making up—with their friends.
PEER RELATIONSHIPS • Children with friends seem better able to handle many stresses. • Conversely, rejected children tend to be more aggressive and more anxious.
CONSCIENCE • Moral reasoning is tied to moral behavior. • Other factors also matter, including the person’s sense of conscience. • depends on children’s relationship with their parents and their desire to preserve that relationship
ADOLESCENCE • Puberty is associated with the development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics. • For boys, early maturation is generally beneficial. • For girls, early maturation appears to be less beneficial.
ERIKSON’S FRAMEWORK • Erikson charted socioemotional development during adolescence. • The key focus during adolescence is identity versus role confusion. • success = stable sense of ego identity • less satisfactory outcome = identity confusion or emergence of a negative identity
DEVELOPING IDENTITY • Adolescence is • sometimes, but not usually, turbulent • characterized by risk-taking behaviors • failing to take dangers seriously • immaturity in the adolescent’s prefrontal cortex • Peer relationships take on even greater importance.
ADULTHOOD • Physical changes in adulthood include a general decline in physical and sensory abilities. • Cognitive changes are also evident during adulthood and older age.
CHANGES IN INTELLECTUAL PERFORMANCE • Fluid intelligence • efficiency and speed of intellectual functioning, usually in areas that are new to the person • declines across the life span
CHANGES IN INTELLECTUAL PERFORMANCE • Crystallized intelligence • individual’s accumulated knowledge, including vocabulary, known facts, and learned strategies • remains relatively stable over the life span and may even grow with gained experience
CHANGES IN INTELLECTUAL PERFORMANCE • Why the decline? • individual’s biological and/or medical status (e. g. Alzheimer’s disease) • individual’s mental life—people who are mentally more active preserve their memory more fully as they age
SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT • According to Erikson, socioemotional development during adulthood can be described using three stages. • intimacy versus isolation • generativity versus stagnation • integrity versus despair
GOOD NEWS ABOUT GETTING OLDER • One surprising finding is that older adults have high levels of wellbeing. • Socioemotional-selectivity theory • Older adults increasingly prioritize emotion regulation goals. • This leads them to feel less negative emotion and more positive emotion.
FINAL THOUGHTS • Development depends both on biological and environmental factors, which interact. • It’s important to avoid dichotomies, which can be misleading.
FIGURE 9. 10 Children experience rapid physical changes through infancy and early childhood. (credit “left”: modification of work by Kerry Ceszyk; credit “middle-left”: modification of work by Kristi Fausel; credit “middle-right”: modification of work by “devinf”/Flickr; credit “right”: modification of work by Rose Spielman)
FIGURE 9. 11 In Baillargeon’s study, infants observed a truck (a) roll down an unobstructed track, (b) roll down an unobstructed track with an obstruction (box) beside it, and (c) roll down and pass through what appeared to be an obstruction.
FIGURE 9. 12 Because they understand luck and fairness, children in middle and late childhood (6– 11 years old) are able to follow rules for games. (credit: Edwin Martinez)
FIGURE 9. 13 Mutually enjoyable interactions promote the mother-infant bond. (credit: Peter Shanks)
FIGURE 9. 14 In secure attachment, the parent provides a secure base for the toddler, allowing him to securely explore his environment. (credit: Kerry Ceszyk)
FIGURE 9. 15 Peers are a primary influence on our development in adolescence. (credit: Sheila Tostes)
FIGURE 9. 16 Brain growth continues into the early 20 s. The development of the frontal lobe, in particular, is important during this stage.
FIGURE 9. 17 Teenage thinking is characterized by the ability to reason logically and solve hypothetical problems such as how to design, plan, and build a structure. (credit: U. S. Army RDECOM)
FIGURE 9. 18 Physical declines of middle and late adulthood can be minimized with proper exercise, nutrition, and an active lifestyle. (credit: modification of work by Peter Stevens)
FIGURE 9. 19 Cognitive activities such as playing mahjong, chess, or other games, can keep you mentally fit. The same is true for solo pastimes like reading and completing crossword puzzles. (credit: Philippe Put)
FIGURE 9. 20 Social support is important as we age. (credit: Gabriel Rocha)
FIGURE 9. 21 In some cultures, people’s bodies may be buried in a cemetery after death. (credit: Christina Rutz)
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