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What are these processes? This refers to the psychological processes that govern buying behaviour of individuals and groups • Information Processing • Learning • Influencing attitudes and Behaviour
Information Processing • Exposure – achievement of proximity to a stimulus to activate the senses • Attention- allocation of processing capacity to stimulus • Comprehension – interpretation of stimulus • Acceptance – persuasive impact of stimulus • Retention – transfer of stimulus interpretation to memory
Exposure Given exposure to a stimulus of sufficient strength, a person’s sensory receptors are activated and a message is sent to the brain. This is called a sensation, which happens after crossing a threshold level
Threshold levels • Lower/absolute threshold – stimulus intensity below which sensation would not occur • Terminal threshold – above which additional doses of stimulus intensity has no effect on sensation • Difference threshold – smallest change in stimulus intensity that would get noticed
Weber’s Law • The change in stimulus intensity required to be noticeable is not on the amount but on the percentage change from the original stimulus. K = Δ I/I where K is a constant ΔI = change in stimulus intensity I = original stimulus intensity
Getting Attention • The first step in getting your ad noticed by the target segment • Advertising clutter • Noise clutter • Memory is less when viewed/heard with competitive brand advertising.
Attention • Preattentive processing – limitation of processing capacity. 1 st stage • Attention – allocation of processing capacity to stimulus. 2 nd stage
Personal determinants of attention • • Need/Motivation Attitudes Adaptation level Span of attention
Stimulus determinants of attention • • • Size Colour Intensity Contrast Position • • • Directionality Movement Isolation Novelty Learned ‘stimuli’ Attractive spokesperson
Primacy and Recency effects Primacy • Being the first ad, it registers in the mind. Recency • The last one is fresh in memory Therefore such ad positions are priced at a premium.
What ads attracts attention? • Product information that would help purchase decision • Those that expose themselves to information that support these opinions and avoid discrepant information • Those that desire to get exposed to information that stimulates • Stimuli which is interesting
Information of Practical value The behavioural tendency to process information depends on • Need for information • Expectancy (Probability) that processing a particular ad will lead to relevant information exposure • Measure of the value of that particular as a source of relevant information
Long copy Vs short copy • Readership drops sharply after 50 words but between 50 and 500 words there is hardly any difference. • ‘The more you tell the more you sell’ • ‘If you don’t have anything to say, then sing it. ’ • Depends on whether it is under active search or future reference • Infomercials • Advertorials
Information that supports • Dissonance theory – Cognitive dissonance is discomforting and people will try to reduce it. One mechanism is through selective exposure • People tend to have a psychological preference for supportive information and avoid discrepant information. This is called selective exposure • Ad awareness seems to be higher for those who already have higher brand attitudes – Rajeev Batra and Wilried Vanhonacker • Involuntary exposure to non-supportive information shall increase selective exposure to information that supports
Information that interests • People tend to notice information that is interesting to them – Russel Haley • This where customer self-selection works when such ads are put in mass media.
Information that stimulates • Variety theory by Salvadore Maddi. This states that novelty, unexpectedness, change and complexity are pursued because they are inherently satisfying. • Adaptation level theory by H. Helson. People learn to associate stimuli with a reference point or adaptation level. Marked deviation from it shall attract attention.
Attention vs Recall of an ad is a necessary but not sufficient condition for persuasion. • Ad repetition, higher frequency and higher SOV • Using distinctive creative material in the ad • Merchandising using clues to recall ad at the store
Attention vs Comprehension • While getting attention is important it should not detract the viewer from the message • The execution, models, props, etc. must not take precedence over the brand. • Persuasion takes place when good comprehension takes place. Processing would take central or peripheral routes of processing depending on the comprehension.
Comprehension The interpretation of the stimulus. To derive meaning from the stimulus.
How does this happen? • Stimulus categorization – classifying stimulus using concepts stored in memory • Stimulus elaboration – integration between new knowledge and knowledge stored in memory • Stimulus organization – how people organize and rearrange stimuli into a meaningful whole (Gestalt psychology)
Personal determinants of Comprehension • • Linguistics Order effects Context Miscomprehension • Motivation • Hunger • Expectation or perceptual set • Stimulus determinants
What is perception? It is the process where an individual receives stimuli through the various senses and interprets them
The Perception Process Attention Stimulus Interpretation Active Search Simplify Passive search Distort Passive Stimulus Conditions Attention Intensity Organiz Audience e Conditions Size Attitudes Values Interests Confidence Social Context Cognitive Style Message Novelty Position Cognition
Perceptual organization • People tend to see objects as a whole than see individually its parts. – S. E. Asch • First impressions are important. • Closure • Assimilation – Contrast • Miscomprehension
Interpretation vs Comprehension • Objective comprehension What is the take-out of the brand? – copy test scales • Subjective comprehension Explicit – the ad story Implicit – using the ad information along with knowledge and experience already stored in memory The deeper the level of subjective comprehension, the more effective the ad will be credibility, likeability, persuasive and recall – David Mick
Acceptance This is the persuasive impact of the stimulus
Acceptance depends on • Cognitive responses – SAs and CAs • Affective responses - feelings that are elicited by the stimulus
Retention Transfer of stimulus interpretation and persuasion into long term memory
Methods for enhancing retention • Interrelation between stimulus elements • Use concrete words rather than abstract words • Encourage self referencing • Mnemonics – jingles, rhymes, music, etc. • Repetition
Memory is space allocated in the brain to store processed information and retrieve it as when desired. Our brain consists of two hemispheres • Left brain – logical, abstract and conceptual thinking • Right brain – creative, intuitive, imaginal • The connection is through the corpus callosum Normally people are ‘left’ or ‘right’ brain dominated
Memory consists of • Sensory memory – iconic (visual), echoic (auditory) – 0. 25 sec • Short term memory - < 30 sec • Long term memory
Learning This is the process by which experience leads to changes in knowledge , attitudes and behaviour.
Learning takes place through • Cognitive learning – from changes in knowledge and information processing • Behavioural learning – observing behaviour and changes in behaviour Most consumer behaviour is learned behaviour
Cognitive learning • Rehearsal – mental repetition of information • Elaboration – the degree of integration between the stimulus and existing knowledge that occurs during information processing. It is influenced by the motivation and ability of the individual
Forgetting When you are unable to retrieve or access information stored in long term memory
Types of forgetting • Decay – memory trace will fade with passage of time • Interference – caused by learning new information over time.
Interference • Retroactive inhibition – recently learned information prevents retrieval of previously learnt information • Proactive inhibition – prior learning prevents hinders retrieval and learning of new information • Momentary forgetting – when information is present but retrieval is difficult because of limitations in accessibility
Determinants of information accessibility • Amount of information stored in memory within the same ‘content’ domain • Particular retrieval cues available at that time eg. Pops, jingles, key words, etc.
Measures of Cognitive learning • Recognition – from multiple choice • Recall – qualitative answers
Measures of cognitive learning • Aided recall • Unaided recall • Day after recall (DAR)
Behavioural learning • Classical conditioning • Operant conditioning • Shaping
Classical conditioning Unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned response Conditioned stimulus Conditioned Response
Determinants of Classical Conditioning • Strength of unconditioned stimulus • No. of pairings or strength of association
Extinction When the conditioned stimulus is unable to evoke the conditioned response. This will happen if the association with the US is broken with the CS
Generalization When for an existing stimulus – response relationship, a new stimulus similar to the stimulus is used to bring about the same response
Discrimination The process by which an individual learns to emit a response to one stimulus but avoids making the same response to a similar response
Operant Conditioning Instrumental learning concerned with how the consequences of a behaviour will affect the frequency or probability of the behaviour being repeated
Operant conditioning can take place through • Positive reinforcement • Negative reinforcement
Applications in Marketing • • Sampling Trials Demonstrations Test drives Research has proved that there is 60% more penetration when free sampling is done.
Shaping The process which encourages marketers to think about what behaviours must precede the ultimate act of purchase and how these prerequisite behaviour can be encouraged through appropriate reinforcements
Vicarious learning This is the process of learning through observing the action of others and the consequences of those behaviours. It includes elements of both cognitive and behavioural learning.