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PSYC 112 PSYCHOLOGY FOR EVERYDAY LIVING Session 3 – Memory Part I Lecturer: Dr. Paul Narh Doku, Dept of Psychology, UG Contact Information: [email protected] edu. gh College of Education School of Continuing and Distance Education 2014/2015 – 2016/2017
Session Overview • While we might take memory for granted, it is actually a complex process that allows us to learn and recall vast amounts of information every moment of every day. Memory is the term given to the structures and processes involved in the storage and subsequent retrieval of information. Memory is essential to all our lives. Without a memory of the past we cannot operate in the present or think about the past or plan for the future. Without memory we could not learn anything. This session will introduce you to the fields of cognition and memory, the distinction between the human memory and computers and also present an overview of three stages of the human memory theory. Slide 2
Session Outline The key topics to be covered in the session are as follows: • Topic 1 – Memory and its scope • Topic 2 – Functions of Memory • Topic 3 – Human Memory and Computers • Topic 4 – Stages theory of Memory • Topic 5 – Modifications to the three stage model of memory • Topic 6 – Loss of Memory Slide 3
Reading List • Refer to students to relevant text/chapter or reading materials you will make available on Sakai Slide 4
Topic 1 –Memory and Its Scope Slide 5
The Cognitive System Cognition can be defined as "the act or process of knowing in the broadest sense; specifically, an intellectual process by which knowledge is gained from perception or ideas” (Webster's Dictionary).
What then is Memory? • The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information. • Memory is also seen as an active system that receives, stores, organizes, alters, and recovers (retrieves) information
Topic 2 - How Does the Memory Functions? The Memory Process Just like a computer, the memory functions involve three processes. So memory is also seen as an information processing system. The processes are: 1. Encoding: The processing of information into the memory system. Converting information into a useable form that can be stored in memory 2. Storage: The retention of encoded material over time. The act of holding and maintaining information in memory for later use 3. Retrieval: The process of getting the information out of memory storage. The act of bringing to mind material that has been stored in memory
How Does Memory Work? An Information-Processing Model? Here is a simplified description of how memory works: Encoding Storage Retrieval § Encoding: the information gets into our brains in a way that allows it to be stored § Storage: the information is held in a way that allows it to later be retrieved § Retrieval: reactivating and recalling the information, producing it in a form similar to what was encoded
Topic 3 – Comparing Human memory and Computers – Both are seen as information-processing systems that performs the functions of input, storage and retrieval of data, however; • The human memory functions like a sophisticated computer. It is powerful, faster and complex than a computer. • Unlike computers, human memory has the capacity for consciousness - awareness of one’s own thoughts and the external world. Focusing attention brings stimulus into consciousness • Computers have limitations as to the volume of data that can be stored but the capacity of the human memory is unlimited.
Topic 4: Stages of Memory 1. The human memory is made up of three storages called the stages or models of memory. These are the sensory memory (sensory register, short term memory, and long term memory) 2. Each of these storages or models have unique features and stores different types of data or information. 3. All Information from the environment are first captured in the sensory memory, by paying attention some these information are processed into the short term memory. By rehearsal the information is moved from the short term memory into the long term memory where the information
A Simplified Memory Model Sensory input Attention to important or novel information Information from Sensory External memory events Encoding rehearsal Short-term memory Long-term memory Retrieving
Models of Memory Formation [The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model (1968)] 1. Stimuli are recorded by our senses and held briefly in sensory memory. 2. Some of this information is processed into short-term memory and encoded through selective attention. 3. Information then moves into long-term memory through elaborative rehearsal where it can be retrieved later.
Sensory Memory • Information received from sense organs lasts for short period of time • Sensory memory is affiliated with the transduction of energy. • Acquire information primarily from sight (iconic memory) and hearing (echoic memory), but also through other senses (haptic memory for touch) • The memory system that holds information coming in through the senses for a period ranging from a fraction of a second to several seconds • Transfer occurs when we pay attention to sensory input to move it from iconic/echoic memory to short-term memory – Visual memory (icon)--less than ½ second – Auditory memory (echo)--lasts 2 to 3 seconds
Short-term Memory • Also called working memory-- • Getting information into STM the mental workspace a – Attention person uses to keep in mind • Keeping information in STM tasks being thought about at – Organization (advance organizer) any given moment – Repetition (maintenance • Limited capacity - 5 + 2 units rehearsal) (earlier thought to be 7 + 2) – An interruption to repetition cause information to be lost • Stores Acoustic or Phonetic in just a few seconds data (how it is pronounced) • Displacement • Limited/Brief storage (up to – The event that occurs when 15 -30/45 seconds maximum) short-term memory is holding its maximum and each new • Conscious processing of item entering short-term information memory pushes out an existing item
Long-term Memory • The relatively permanent memory system with a virtually unlimited capacity where data are stored on basis of meaning and importance • Elaboration Rehearsal - A technique used to encode information into long-term memory by considering its meaning and associating it with other information already stored in long-term memory • Stores both Explicit (declarative) and Implicit (procedural) memories Explicit (declarative) memory (facts): factual knowledge & personal experiences; • Semantic Memory: Impersonal facts and everyday knowledge • Episodic Memory: Personal experiences linked with specific times and places Implicit (procedural) Memory (skills): Long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills, e. g. , driving
In the model shown here, long-term memory is divided into procedural memory (learned actions and skills) and declarative memory (stored facts). Declarative memories can be either semantic (impersonal knowledge) or episodic (personal experiences associated with specific times and places).
Storage: Long-Term Memory Subsystems Types of long-term memories Explicit (declarative) With conscious recall Facts-general knowledge (“semantic memory”) Personally experienced events (“episodic memory”) Implicit (nondeclarative) Without conscious recall Skills-motor and cognitive Dispositionsclassical and operant conditioning effects
Summary: Types of Memory Processing
Topic 5 - Two modifications to the three model approach to memory 1. The short term Memory is now seen as a working memory because it performs other functions aside rehearsal 2. There is evidence that some information from the environment do not go through the short term memory to be processed. These memories such as flashbulbs moved directly from the sensory memory into the long term memory (automatic processing). Memory is now seen as a dual processing system – engaging in both automatic processing and effortful processing Flashbulb memories refer to emotionally intense events that become “burned in” as a vivid-seeming Slide 21 memory. Modifying the Model: §More goes on in short-term memory besides rehearsal; this is now called working memory. §Some information seems to go straight from sensory experience into long-term memory; this is automatic processing.
1. Working Memory: Functions The short-term memory is “working” in many ways. § It holds information not just to rehearse it , but to process it (such as hearing a word problem in math and doing it in your head). Auditory rehearsal Executive functions Visospatial “sketchpad” repeating a password to memorize it choosing what to attend to, respond to rearranging room furniture in your mind Short-term memory integrates information from long-term memory with new information coming in from sensory memory.
2. Memory as a Dual-Processing System Explicit and Implicit Memories So far, we have been talking about explicit/ “declarative” memories. These are facts and experiences that we can consciously know and recall. Our minds acquire this information through effortful processing. Explicit memories are formed through studying, rehearsing, thinking, processing, and then storing information in long-term memory. Some memories are formed without going through all the Atkinson-Shiffrin stages. These are implicit memories, the ones we are not fully aware of and thus don’t “declare”/talk about. These memories are typically formed through automatic processing. Implicit memories are formed without our awareness that we are building a memory, and without rehearsal or other processing in working memory.
Automatic Processing Some experiences go directly to long-term implicit memory Some experiences are processed automatically into implicit memory, without any effortful/working memory processing: § procedural memory, such as knowing how to ride a bike, and well-practiced knowledge such as word meanings § conditioned associations, such as a smell that triggers thoughts of a favorite place § information about space, such as being able to picture where things are after walking through a room § information about time, such as retracing a sequence of events if you lost something § information about frequency, such as thinking, “I just noticed that this is the third texting driver I’ve passed today. ”
Summary and Comparison of the Three Stages of Memory Sensory 1. Unlimited/Large capacity 2. Contains sensory information 3. Very brief retention (1/2 sec for visual; 2 secs for auditory) Short Term 1. Limited capacity 2. Acoustically encoded 3. Brief storage (up to 30 seconds w/o rehearsal) 4. Conscious processing of information Long Term 1. Unlimited capacity 2. Semantically encoded 3. Storage presumed permanent 4. Information highly organized
Three Box Model of Memory
Topic 6 - Loss of Memory (Amnesia) Loss of memory is called amnesia. There are 3 basic types: • Anterograde amnesia: the inability to form new explicit longterm memories for events following brain trauma or surgery. Explicit memories formed before are left intact. Cause possibly is damage to hippocampus • Retrograde amnesia: the disruption of memory for the past, especially episodic memory. After brain trauma or surgery, there often is retrograde amnesia for events occurring just before (old memories are lost). • Infantile/child amnesia: the inability as adults to remember events that occurred in our lives before about 3 years of age. Due possibly to fact that hippocampus is not fully developed.
References • Coon, D. and Mitterer, O. J (2013). Introduction to Psychology (13 th ed). Wadsworth Cengage learning. Pp. 241 -268 • Feldman, S. R, Collins, J. E. and Green, M. J (2005). Essentials of understanding psychology (2 nd ed). Mc. Graw. Hill Ryerson. pp. 187 -212 • Kosslyn, M. S, and Rosenberg, R. (2006). Psychology in context. pearson. Pp. 278 -315 • Weiten, W. (2009). Psychology: Themes and variations (8 th ed). cengage learning. Pp. 277 -305 Dr. Richard Boateng, UGBS Slide 28