- Slides: 18
PSSA Review 2011
Figurative Language �Simile (like or as): She was as happy as a clam. �Metaphor (direct comparison): His smile is golden. �Personification (human qualities to inanimate): The sun smiled on us. �Hyperbole (exaggeration): I could eat a horse. �Allusion (reference to well-known): “Five score years ago…” �Imagery (appeals to the senses): The luscious green grass was freshly cut.
Reading Comprehension: Poetry �Written with a rhythm �Uses figurative language �Evokes emotion �Written in stanzas and lines �Rhyme Scheme: pattern of rhyming lines �Couplet: two rhyming lines �ALL poems are lyric (one speaker/emotional) Sonnet (14), ballad (story), ode (praise), elegy (mourning)
Reading Comprehension: Drama �Written to be performed by actors on stage Comedy: to amuse and entertain, happy ending Tragedy: serious/human suffering, sad ending (death) � Tragic flaw: the trait a hero in the tragedy has that brings them to their downfall (e. g. jealousy, greed, pride). �Divided into: Acts and Scenes �Dialogue: words spoken by characters in the play �Cast of characters: list of character names and descriptions �Stage directions: Instructions for the actors and descriptions of the stage/scenery [Written in italics. ]
Vocabulary �Root: base of a word root word EVENT + ful = eventful Un + (root word EXPECTED = unexpected
Affix: syllables added to a root word Prefix: added to the beginning of a word � dis (not) + agree = disagree Suffix: added to the end of a word � joy + ous (full of) = joyous
Vocabulary �Synonym: words with similar meanings Angry, livid, furious Brave, intrepid, courageous Happy… Small… �Antonym: words with opposite meanings Brave/Frightened Happy/Sad Perfect/
Vocabulary in Context �words, sentences, phrases that come before and after a particular word �ideas surrounding the word Although it was quite and peaceful in the park, Rosario could hear the vociferous constant hollering of the man in the alleyway.
Context Clues Although it was quite and peaceful in the park, Rosario could hear the vociferous constant hollering of the man in the alleyway. Although = contrast to quiet and peaceful Comma , = change constant hollering = continuous, loud
Practice Because of the boy’s reputation for mendacity, his teacher did not believe his excuse for not handing his report in on time. Underline words that are context clues. marks of punctuation that are Circle context clues.
Idioms �Literal meaning: definition �Figurative meaning: creative interpretation �Idiom: expressions that cannot be understood just by knowing the literal meaning of a word or words. �I aced the English test. �I got a perfect grade on the English test.
Multiple-Meaning Words �Homonyms: Words that have the same spelling but different meanings. Pro. JECT: to stand out PROject: an assignment �Homophones: words that sound alike but are spelled differently and have different meanings. Pause: to stop momentarily Paws: an animals foot
Reading Comprehension: Prose �Non-fiction: factual (for �Fiction: imaginary real) �Explains, argues, describes �Biographies, newspapers articles, textbooks (math, language, history, science) �Entertain �Stories, novels, fairy tales, fables, myths
Fiction �Plot (story) �Characters (people/animals) �Setting (time and place) �Theme (message) �Point of View (1 st person, 3 rd person)
Strategy �Identify the kind of literature: Fiction, non-fiction, poetry Fact or opinion? To inform or entertain? �Identify the main idea (focus): what is the story about? �Identify the author’s purpose: why are they writing this?
Responding to the Text �Generalizations: broad statement (not always factual or true) �Key words: Always, never, all �People always go to the beach during the summer.
Drawing Conclusions �overall opinion based on information/evidence from the passage Marcus squirmed in the metal chair and stifled a yawn. The guest speaker has been lecturing for what seemed like two days. Marcus picked up his pen and began an elaborate doodle in the margins of his paper.
Inference �Inferences: determination based on information and evidence from the passage Roger walked up and down his driveway bouncing and bouncing a ball and tossing it at a hoop over his garage door.