PROTEIN OUTLINE Protein Definition Protein structure Protein Function

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PROTEIN

PROTEIN

OUTLINE Protein Definition Protein structure Protein Function References

OUTLINE Protein Definition Protein structure Protein Function References

OUTLINE Protein Definition Protein structure Protein Function References

OUTLINE Protein Definition Protein structure Protein Function References

PROTEINS DEFINITION Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long

PROTEINS DEFINITION Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

OUTLINE Protein Definition Protein structure Protein Function References

OUTLINE Protein Definition Protein structure Protein Function References

PROTEIN STRUCTURE there are 4 levels of protein structure: Primary 2. Secondary 3. Tertiary

PROTEIN STRUCTURE there are 4 levels of protein structure: Primary 2. Secondary 3. Tertiary 4. Quaternary 1.

1. PRIMARY STRUCTURE The simplest level of protein structure, primary structure, is simply the

1. PRIMARY STRUCTURE The simplest level of protein structure, primary structure, is simply the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.

2. SECONDARY STRUCTURE The next level of protein structure, secondary structure, refers to local

2. SECONDARY STRUCTURE The next level of protein structure, secondary structure, refers to local folded structures that form within a polypeptide due to interactions between atoms of the backbone.

3. TERTIARY STRUCTURE The overall three-dimensional structure of a polypeptide is called its tertiary

3. TERTIARY STRUCTURE The overall three-dimensional structure of a polypeptide is called its tertiary structure. The tertiary structure is primarily due to interactions between the R groups of the amino acids that make up the protein. R group interactions that contribute to tertiary structure include hydrogen bonding, ionic bonding, dipole-dipole interactions, and London dispersion forces – basically, the whole gamut of non-covalent bonds.

3. TERTIARY STRUCTURE

3. TERTIARY STRUCTURE

4. QUATERNARY STRUCTURE Some proteins are made up of multiple polypeptide chains, also known

4. QUATERNARY STRUCTURE Some proteins are made up of multiple polypeptide chains, also known as subunits. When these subunits come together, they give the protein its quaternary structure. Example of a protein with quaternary structure: hemoglobin carries oxygen in the blood and is made up of four subunits, two each of the α and β types. 1

4. QUATERNARY STRUCTURE

4. QUATERNARY STRUCTURE

PROTEIN STRUCTURES

PROTEIN STRUCTURES

OUTLINE Protein Definition Protein structure Protein Function References

OUTLINE Protein Definition Protein structure Protein Function References

PROTEIN FUNCTION Protein is an important substance found in every cell in the human

PROTEIN FUNCTION Protein is an important substance found in every cell in the human body. In fact, except for water, protein is the most abundant substance in the body. This protein is manufactured by body utilizing the dietary protein you consume. It is used in many vital processes and thus needs to be consistently replaced. You can accomplish this by regularly consuming foods that contain protein.

PROTEIN FUNCTION Proteins 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. play a major role in

PROTEIN FUNCTION Proteins 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. play a major role in : Repair and Maintenance of body tissues Energy Enzymes Transportation and Storage of Molecules Antibodies Hormones

1. REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE Protein is termed the building block of the body. It

1. REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE Protein is termed the building block of the body. It is called this because protein is vital in the maintenance of body tissue, including development and repair. Hair, skin, eyes, muscles and organs are all made from protein. This is why children need more protein per pound of body weight than adults; they are growing and developing new protein tissue.

2. ENERGY Protein is a major source of energy. If you consume more protein

2. ENERGY Protein is a major source of energy. If you consume more protein than you need for body tissue maintenance and other necessary functions, your body will use it for energy. If it is not needed due to sufficient intake of other energy sources such as carbohydrates, the protein will be used to create fat and becomes part of fat cells.

3. ENZYMES Enzymes are proteins that increase the rate of chemical reactions in the

3. ENZYMES Enzymes are proteins that increase the rate of chemical reactions in the body. In fact, most of the necessary chemical reactions in the body would not efficiently proceed without enzymes. For example, one type of enzyme functions as an aid in digesting large protein, carbohydrate and fat molecules into smaller molecules, while another assists the creation of DNA.

4. TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF MOLECULES Protein is a major element in transportation of

4. TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF MOLECULES Protein is a major element in transportation of certain molecules. For example, hemoglobin is a protein that transports oxygen throughout the body. Protein is also sometimes used to store certain molecules. Ferritin is an example of a protein that combines with iron for storage in the liver.

5. ANTIBODIES Protein forms antibodies that help prevent infection, illness and disease. These proteins

5. ANTIBODIES Protein forms antibodies that help prevent infection, illness and disease. These proteins identify and assist in destroying antigens such as bacteria and viruses. They often work in conjunction with the other immune system cells. For example, these antibodies identify and then surround antigens in order to keep them contained until they can be destroyed by white blood cells.

6. HORMONES Protein is involved in the creation of some hormones. These substances help

6. HORMONES Protein is involved in the creation of some hormones. These substances help control body functions that involve the interaction of several organs. Insulin, a small protein, is an example of a hormone that regulates blood sugar. It involves the interaction of organs such as the pancreas and the liver. Secretin, is another example of a protein hormone. This substance assists in the digestive process by stimulating the pancreas and the intestine to create necessary digestive juices.

OUTLINE Protein Definition Protein structure Protein Function References

OUTLINE Protein Definition Protein structure Protein Function References

REFERENCES www. presentationszone. com www. wikipedia. org www. khanacademy. org www. healthyeating. sfgate. com

REFERENCES www. presentationszone. com www. wikipedia. org www. khanacademy. org www. healthyeating. sfgate. com