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• The implementation of protected areas is an extension to the concept of protection if biodiversity • IUCN (international Union for Conservation of Nature) • Devised various categories of protected areas , categories 1 -6 – Category 1 – pristine environment, wilderness area which are entirely closed, no permanent roads or human settlement's – Category 6 – where there is an interface between recreation protection and education. Most of these areas open to human access and are the least controlled • Protected areas is one of the mechanisms for the protection of biodiversity source
IUCN MAKES DISTINCTION BETWEEN IN SITU AND EX SITU CONSERVATION • IN SITU – ideal where biodiversity resources occur – Through protection of biodiversity habitats, biodiversity resources are also protected – In situ means the place where they exist is protected, therefore everything within area protected • EX SITU – highly threated habitat to extent that species are threatened – It involves the recreation of habitats to try to preserve species in there current state in conditions which resemble as closely as possible there natural habitats
Objectives of the Act • To provide for a mechanism or means to extend the protection and conservation of biodiversity resources. • To provide for the continued existence of South African National Parks • To promote participation of local communities in the management of protected areas, where appropriate. • NB is Chapter 2 • Provides for a system of protected areas » Eg spceial nature reserves, national parks , world heritage sites , marine protected areas • Does not provide or new protected areas but renames certain protected areas which have been protected under previous legislation • Section 9 in CH 2 is pivotal section • Mentions all types of protected areas • Provides for default identification and regulation of protected areas » E. g. marine protect areas » World heritage sites » Special nature reserves, national parks , nature reserves.
• Declaration of protected areas: chapter 3 • MEC or minister, depending on where they are situated • The minister must set up a list and maintain a list of all protected areas in SA • Declaration of national parks happens on the basis of proclamation of national parks – they are proclaimed and declared as national parks by means of publication in Gov Gazzette. • National parks previously regulated by the National Parks Act which was repealed by the new Protected Areas Act. • Man of national parks assumed and transferred to the national parks board • NPB can identify parks not identified as national parks and proclaim them as national parks.
• Nature reserves - covered in part 3 – Purpose – Protect the area if it has significant natural features of biodiversity or is of cultural or scientific interest or is in need for long-term protection for the maintenance of biodiversity – To provide natural products and services to meet the needs of local communities • Protected environments – covered in part 4 – Purpose – Enable land owners to take collective action to conserve biodiversity on their land seek legal recognition thereof – To protect the area if it is sensitive to development due to biological diversity, scientific, cultural value – To ensure that the use of resources in the area is sustainable
Chapter 4 management of protect areas • Chapter only applies to special nature reserves, national parks and protected environments • Minister required to assign a management authority for protected areas • He is to submit management plans for approval by relevant authority within twelve months • Part 2 intro monitoring and supervision • Allows the minister to set performance indicators which management authorities must meet • If necessary requirements not meet then mandate may be terminated • Part 3 Deals with protected areas • With certain exceptions, special nature reserves are off limits to human access • Access only allowed with written permission of management authority in question
• Part 4 Deals with prospecting and mining in protected areas • Cannot mine in a special nature reserve, national park or nature reserve without the written permission of the minister and cabinet members responsible for minerals and energy affairs
Chapter 6 Acquisition of rights – The min may acquire rights in land in order to extend the national parks – It can remain a land in private hands, does not have to be state property – It does not have to be a National Park, it can be protected are.
Other protected areas • WORLD HERITAGE SITES • World Heritage Convention Act provides for the implementation of the convention in South Africa • There are eight World Heritage Sites in South Africa » Great st Lucia Wetland Park » Robben Island » Cape Floral Region protected Areas • MARINE PROTECTED AREAS • MLRA provides for the declaration of marine protected areas » » • Purpose of declaration is for the protection of fauna and flora To allow stock to recover No one is allowed to fish, pollute and build anything in the areas without permission
• PROVINCIAL RESERVES • Each province can establish a protected area – Cape province: provincial, local and private nature reserves – Natal: commercial game reserves, game parks, game reserves, national parks, nature reserves. – Orange Free State: provincial nature reserves and private nature reserves – Transvaal: Nature reserves • There is a prohibition of killing, injuring or picking of indigenous plants in these areas • ISLANDS • • Islands can also be used sanctuaries and breading stations for sea birds Its an offence to kill or capture any sea birds or seals on any island or take eggs unless the person is authorised to do so.
• Conservancies • A conservancy is a group of farms whose owners have combined resources for the improved conservation and well-being of wildlife inhabiting the area • These conservancies have no legal nature conservation status