- Slides: 9
PROPERTIES OF MATTER
DEFINITIONS • Matter: Anything that has mass and takes up space • Atoms: The building blocks of matter • Atoms are the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element • Each element has its own specific atom • Compare to how a cell is the smallest unit of life. There are smaller parts inside but they wouldn’t have the properties of life. • Mass: The amount of matter an object contains • Volume: the amount of space something takes up • Density: the amount of mass in a given volume. How heavy something is for its size. • D = m/v • http: //studyjams. scholastic. com/studyjams/science/matter/properties-of-matter. htm
PHASES OF MATTER • Matter can exist in different phases: • Solid- rigid shape, fixed volume. • Particles are locked in place and can’t move past each other. • Usually most densely packed (exception is water) • Atoms vibrate in their position
PHASES OF MATTER • Fluids: term used to describe liquids and gasses because they can move and flow. The particles are in constant random motion. • Liquid- takes container’s shape, fixed volume. • Less densely packed particles can move around each other.
PHASES OF MATTER • Gas- does not have fixed shape OR fixed volume. • Takes on the shape and volume of the container. • Particles are most spread out and can quickly move around each other. • Plasma- A fluid with charged particles present. • Can conduct electrical current.
PHASES CHANGES • Matter can change its phase as temperature changes. • Temperature- the amount of heat present, measured by the average kinetic energy of the molecules. • All atoms are in motion; the higher the temperature, the more they move and spread out. • Each element has a specific temperature at which the phase changes • http: //studyjams. scholastic. com/studyjams/science/matter/solids-liquids-gases. htm
PHASES CHANGE GRAPH • Adding heat (thermal) energy usually causes temperature to rise • During phase changes, heat changes but temperature does not • Energy is put towards changing the phase instead of raising the temperature • Ex. Melting ice will stay at 0 o. C until it completely turns to water
PHYSICAL VS. CHEMICAL CHANGE • Physical change: when characteristics change, but the type of material stays the same. Often reversible. • Ex. Phase change, breaking, dissolving • Chemical change: when the original material changes into a new substance. Can’t be reversed. • Hints- gas, light, heat, smell, color change • Ex. Burning, rusting • http: //studyjams. scholastic. com/studyjams/science/matter/changes-of-matter. htm
PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL? • Are the following changes physical or chemical? • • Water evaporating from the ocean Gasoline burning Jewelry tarnishing Milk turns sour Butter melts on toast Your body digests food Clay is molded into a new shape Paper is ripped in half • Regardless of the change, the law of conservation of mass tells us mass remains the same. • Matter can be changed but can’t be created or destroyed.