Properties of Cardiac Muscle 1 Objectives n n

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Properties of Cardiac Muscle 1

Properties of Cardiac Muscle 1

Objectives n n n Define the terms; Rhythmicity, Excitability, Conductivity and Contractility. Describe cardiac

Objectives n n n Define the terms; Rhythmicity, Excitability, Conductivity and Contractility. Describe cardiac syncytium. Outline the normal pathway of the cardiac impulse. Describe the excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscles and compare it to excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscles. Compare and contrast action potential in sinoatrial node and ventricular muscle. Explain the significance of the plateau and refractory period in ventricular muscle action potential. 2

Heart Composed of Three Layers 3

Heart Composed of Three Layers 3

Properties of Cardiac Muscle Fibers 4

Properties of Cardiac Muscle Fibers 4

Histological Properties of Cardiac Muscle Fibers Exhibit branching n Adjacent cardiac cells are joined

Histological Properties of Cardiac Muscle Fibers Exhibit branching n Adjacent cardiac cells are joined end to end by specialized structures known as intercalated discs n Within intercalated discs there are two types of junctions n Desmosomes n Gap junctions. . allow action potential to spread from one cell to adjacent cells. n Heart function as syncytium when one cardiac cell undergoes an action potential, the electrical impulse spreads to all other cells that are joined by gap junctions so they become excited and contract as a single functional syncytium. Atrial syncytium and ventricular syncytium n 5

THE CARDIAC MUSCLE n n Contractile muscle fibres (myocardium 99%) Atrial muscle fibres &

THE CARDIAC MUSCLE n n Contractile muscle fibres (myocardium 99%) Atrial muscle fibres & Ventricular muscle fibres - Both contract same as in sk. Muscle - Duration of contraction much longer Excitatory & conductive muscle fibres (autorhythmic 1%) - Few contractile fibrils (v. weak contraction) - Exhibit either automatic rhythmic discharge(AP) OR Conduction of the AP through heart 6

Properties of Cardiac Muscle Fibers 1. Autorhythmicity: The ability to initiate a heart beat

Properties of Cardiac Muscle Fibers 1. Autorhythmicity: The ability to initiate a heart beat continuously and regularly without external stimulation 2. Excitability: The ability to respond to a stimulus of adequate strength and duration (i. e. threshold or more) by generating a propagated action potential 3. Conductivity: The ability to conduct excitation through the cardiac tissue 4. Contractility: The ability to contract in response to stimulation 7

1. Autorhythmicity Definition: the ability of the heart to initiate its beat continuously and

1. Autorhythmicity Definition: the ability of the heart to initiate its beat continuously and regularly without external stimulation v v myogenic (independent of nerve supply) due to the specialized excitatory & conductive system of the heart intrinsic ability of self-excitation (waves of depolarization) cardiac impulses 8

Autorythmic fibers Forms 1% of the cardiac muscle fibers Have two important functions 1.

Autorythmic fibers Forms 1% of the cardiac muscle fibers Have two important functions 1. Act as a pacemaker (set the rhythm of electrical excitation) 2. Form the conductive system (network of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that provide a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation to progress through the heart) 9

Locations of autorythmic cells v v Sinoatrial node (SA node) Specialized region in right

Locations of autorythmic cells v v Sinoatrial node (SA node) Specialized region in right atrial wall near opening of superior vena cava. Atrioventricular node (AV node) Small bundle of pecialized cardiac cells located at base of right atrium near septum Bundle of His (atrioventricular bundle) Cells originate at AV node and enters interventricular septum Divides to form right and left bundle branches which travel down septum, curve around tip of ventricular chambers, travel back toward atria along outer walls Purkinje fibers Small, terminal fibers that extend from bundle of His and spread throughout ventricular myocardium 10

Mechanism of Autorythmicity n Autorythmic cells do not have stable resting membrane potential (RMP)

Mechanism of Autorythmicity n Autorythmic cells do not have stable resting membrane potential (RMP) n Natural leakiness to Na & Ca spontaneous and gradual depolarization n Unstable resting membrane potential (= pacemaker potential) n Gradual depolarization reaches threshold (-40 mv) spontaneous AP generation 11

Rate of generation of AP at different sites of the heart SITE SA node

Rate of generation of AP at different sites of the heart SITE SA node RATE (Times/min) 100 AV node 40 - 60 AV bundle, bundle branches, & Purkinje fibres 20 - 35 ØSA node acts as heart pacemaker because it has the fastest rate of generating action potential ØNerve impulses from autonomic nervous system and hormones modify the timing and strength of each heart beat but do not establish the fundamental rhythm. 12

n Non-SA nodal tissues are latent pacemakers that can take over (at a slower

n Non-SA nodal tissues are latent pacemakers that can take over (at a slower rate), should the normal pacemaker (SA node )fail 14

2. Excitability Definition: The ability of cardiac muscle to respond to a stimulus of

2. Excitability Definition: The ability of cardiac muscle to respond to a stimulus of adequate strength & duration by generating an AP initiated by SA node travels along conductive pathway excites atrial & ventricular muscle fibres 15

Action potential in contractile fibers 16

Action potential in contractile fibers 16

Refractory period n n n Long refractory period (250 msec) compared to skeletal muscle

Refractory period n n n Long refractory period (250 msec) compared to skeletal muscle (3 msec) During this period membrane is refractory to further stimulation until contraction is over. It lasts longer than muscle contraction, prevents tetanus Gives time to heart to relax after each contraction, prevent fatigue It allows time for the heart chambers to fill during diastole before next contraction AP in skeletal muscle : 1 -5 msec AP in cardiac muscle : 200 -300 msec 17

3. Contractility Definition: ability of cardiac muscle to contract in response to stimulation 18

3. Contractility Definition: ability of cardiac muscle to contract in response to stimulation 18

Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Cardiac Contractile Cells Similar to that in skeletal muscles 19

Excitation-Contraction Coupling in Cardiac Contractile Cells Similar to that in skeletal muscles 19

4. Conductivity Definition: property by which excitation is conducted through the cardiac tissue 20

4. Conductivity Definition: property by which excitation is conducted through the cardiac tissue 20

Criteria for spread of excitation & efficient cardiac function 1. Atrial excitation and contraction

Criteria for spread of excitation & efficient cardiac function 1. Atrial excitation and contraction should be complete before onset of ventricular contraction - ensures complete filling of the ventricles during diastole 2. Excitation of cardiac muscle fibres should be coordinated ensure each heart chamber contracts as a unit accomplish efficient pumping - smooth uniform contraction essential to squeeze out blood 3. Pair of atria & pair of ventricles should be functionally coordinated both members contract simultaneously - permits synchronized pumping of blood into pulmonary & systemic circulation 21

Tissue Conduction rate (m/s) Atrial muscle 0. 3 Atrial pathways 1 AV node 0.

Tissue Conduction rate (m/s) Atrial muscle 0. 3 Atrial pathways 1 AV node 0. 05 Bundle of His 1 Purkinje system 4 Ventricular muscle 0. 3 -0. 5 22

Spread of Cardiac Excitation n n n Cardiac impulse originates at SA node Action

Spread of Cardiac Excitation n n n Cardiac impulse originates at SA node Action potential spreads throughout right and left atria Impulse passes from atria into ventricles through AV node (only point of electrical contact between chambers) Action potential briefly delayed at AV node (ensures atrial contraction precedes ventricular contraction to allow complete ventricular filling) Impulse travels rapidly down interventricular septum by means of bundle of His Impulse rapidly disperses throughout myocardium by means of Purkinje fibers Rest of ventricular cells activated by cell-to-cell spread of impulse through gap junctions 23