Projects 216 978 Architects 20 653 Images 84

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Projects – 216, 978 Architects – 20, 653 Images – 84, 293 Institutions -

Projects – 216, 978 Architects – 20, 653 Images – 84, 293 Institutions - 31 Hits – 42, 000 a day Hits since 2000 – over 11 million www. philadelphiabuildings. org

All Philadelphia Register Buildings All PA State Inventory Buildings All National Register Buildings All

All Philadelphia Register Buildings All PA State Inventory Buildings All National Register Buildings All HABS-PA Buildings Geographical Coverage All 50 States 57 Countries www. philadelphiabuildings. org

Baxter’s Panoramic Business Directory, 1859

Baxter’s Panoramic Business Directory, 1859

Rae’s Philadelphia Pictorial Directory & Panoramic Advertiser, 1851

Rae’s Philadelphia Pictorial Directory & Panoramic Advertiser, 1851

D. J. Kennedy Watercolor, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, K. 1 -40. 1

D. J. Kennedy Watercolor, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, K. 1 -40. 1

Green’s Hotel, from Philadelphia Pa. , the Book of its Bourse, 1898, p. 67

Green’s Hotel, from Philadelphia Pa. , the Book of its Bourse, 1898, p. 67

New Masonic Hall, Wainwright Lithograph Collection, Library Company of Philadelphia

New Masonic Hall, Wainwright Lithograph Collection, Library Company of Philadelphia

Philadelphia Contributionship fire insurance survey, number 9521

Philadelphia Contributionship fire insurance survey, number 9521

Mc. Elroy Directory, 1857

Mc. Elroy Directory, 1857

Optical Character Recognition Process

Optical Character Recognition Process

Spreadsheet made from OCR Text

Spreadsheet made from OCR Text

Hexamer & Locher Atlas, 1858, Free Library of Philadelphia

Hexamer & Locher Atlas, 1858, Free Library of Philadelphia

702 Chestnut Street Archival Tiff Format with Color Control, Caption Information and Scale

702 Chestnut Street Archival Tiff Format with Color Control, Caption Information and Scale

Detail of 1858 Hexamer & Locher, illustrating georeferencing with current Philadelphia street centerlines

Detail of 1858 Hexamer & Locher, illustrating georeferencing with current Philadelphia street centerlines

Centralized Model Athenaeum (PAB) CML, US Census, research projects Demographics Arch. Drawings Central Data

Centralized Model Athenaeum (PAB) CML, US Census, research projects Demographics Arch. Drawings Central Data and App Server(s) Photos GIS Maps Scanned Maps Phila. Dept. of Records, City Planning, Water Dept. Athenaeum, Free Library Athenaeum, Library Company, HSP, Phila. Dept. of Records

Centralized Model • Data stored in one place • Does not meet local institutional

Centralized Model • Data stored in one place • Does not meet local institutional requirements (thus duplicated systems) • Difficult to plan and scale • Difficult to agree on standards: – Metadata – Data refreshing – Access control, use agreements Greater Philadelphia Geo. History Network http: //www. Phila. Geo. History. org

Centralized Model • Applications run on centralized servers • Faster, but must be controlled

Centralized Model • Applications run on centralized servers • Faster, but must be controlled in one place Greater Philadelphia Geo. History Network http: //www. Phila. Geo. History. org

GIS Maps Distributed Model Dept. of Records Scanned Maps PACSCL Land Use Photos Phila.

GIS Maps Distributed Model Dept. of Records Scanned Maps PACSCL Land Use Photos Phila. Negro Photos Photo Archives Historical Context Data Demographics CML Applications Repositories PAB Arch. Drawings

Distributed Model • Data stored by each institution (or small group of institutions) –

Distributed Model • Data stored by each institution (or small group of institutions) – or in a distributed set of centralized systems • Can be built using existing systems, or systems designed for other purposes • Scales by institution • Need to agree on only basic standards: – Metadata (Dublin Core + Geographic Info) – Protocols for data harvesting Greater Philadelphia Geo. History Network http: //www. Phila. Geo. History. org

Distributed Model • Applications run from anywhere • Applications can be built as needed

Distributed Model • Applications run from anywhere • Applications can be built as needed for particular projects and by different groups • Slower (retrieving data from different sources takes time) • But needed data can be cached (like Google) to provide faster responses Greater Philadelphia Geo. History Network http: //www. Phila. Geo. History. org

Data Distribution Approaches • Entirely map-based, GIS systems – Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web

Data Distribution Approaches • Entirely map-based, GIS systems – Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) – Proprietary options (SDEs, ESRI, Google Earth) • Entirely data-based systems – Open Archives Initiative (OAI) Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (PMH) – XML gateways, Z 39. 50, and the rest Greater Philadelphia Geo. History Network http: //www. Phila. Geo. History. org

Data Distribution Approaches Map-based systems • Easier application development • Wider compatibility with existing

Data Distribution Approaches Map-based systems • Easier application development • Wider compatibility with existing map client software • Significant entry barriers (cost/server speed) for providers Data-based systems • Application/network provides geocoding • Wide support by existing data server software • Lower entry barriers for data providers Greater Philadelphia Geo. History Network http: //www. Phila. Geo. History. org

The Solution? • Mixed Network Models – Distributed resources, with centralized systems where appropriate

The Solution? • Mixed Network Models – Distributed resources, with centralized systems where appropriate • Mixed Data Distribution Approaches – For image-rich base maps (atlas plates, aerial photography, etc. ) – WMS – For data-rich collections (historical photos, city directories) – OAI + spatial + temporal. Greater Philadelphia Geo. History Network http: //www. Phila. Geo. History. org

Challenges • Metadata Standards – Dublin Core? • Geospatial and Temporal Metadata – Map

Challenges • Metadata Standards – Dublin Core? • Geospatial and Temporal Metadata – Map extents, feature points – Date and time, both instant and spanned • Precision, Specificity, and Uncertainty – “ 702 Chestnut St. ” vs. “ 7 th & Chestnut” vs. “Chestnut St. ” vs. “Philadelphia” – “ 1902” vs. “c. 1900” vs. “Early 20 th Century” Greater Philadelphia Geo. History Network http: //www. Phila. Geo. History. org

Challenges (cont’d) • Aggregation / Correlation / Change – Changing place names, boundaries, addresses,

Challenges (cont’d) • Aggregation / Correlation / Change – Changing place names, boundaries, addresses, and uncertain correlations (city directories) – Re-aggregating data sets (e. g. , census data) to provide useful comparisons over time • User Interface – Providing useful interaction both to experience GIS experts, but also to scholars and hobbyists, and even tourists. Greater Philadelphia Geo. History Network http: //www. Phila. Geo. History. org

Greater Philadelphia Geo. History Network http: //www. Phila. Geo. History. org

Greater Philadelphia Geo. History Network http: //www. Phila. Geo. History. org