Principles of Experimental Design Chapter 11 Principles of

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Principles of Experimental Design Chapter 11

Principles of Experimental Design w Control the effects of lurking variables on the response with a plan for collecting the sample. w We use experimental data instead of observational data w Randomize w Replicate

Key terms w Experiment: Process of collecting sample data w Design of Experiment: Plan for collecting the sample w Response Variable: Variable measured in experiment (outcome, y) w Experimental Unit: Object upon which the response y is measured w Factors: Independent Variables w Level: The value assumed by a factor in an experiment w Treatment: A particular combination of levels of the factors in an experiment

Steps in an Experiment (Effects of brand shelf location on coffee sales) w Select factors to be included n brand shelf location w Choose the treatments n brand (2) and shelf location (3) combinations w Determine the number of observations to be made for each treatment n sales are recorded once a week for 18 weeks w Plan how the treatments will be assigned to the experimental units

Volume and “Noise” w Volume: quantity of information in an experiment n Increase with larger sample size, selection of treatments such that the observed values (y) provide information on the parameters of interest w Noise: experimental error n Reduce by assigning treatments to experimental units

Randomization w The use of chance to divide experimental units into groups is called randomization. n Comparison of effects of several treatments is valid only when all treatments are applied to similar groups of experimental units.

How to randomize? w Flip a coin or draw numbers out of a hat w Use a random number table; Table B in your book w Use a statistical software package or program n Minitab n www. whfreeman. com/ips

Completely Randomized Design w The CRD is the simplest of all designs. n n Replications of treatments are assigned completely at random to independent experimental subjects. Adjacent subjects could potentially have the same treatment.

Completely Randomized Design w Sample layout: There are 4 (A – D) treatments with 3 replications (1 – 3) each. A 1 B 1 C 1 A 2 D 1 A 3 D 2 C 2 B 2 D 3 C 3 B 3

Randomized (Complete) Block Design w The RCB is the standard design for ‘agricultural’ experiments. The field is divided into units to account for any variation in the field. Treatments are then assigned at random to the subjects in the blocks-once in each block.

Randomized (Complete) Block Design w Treatments are assigned at random within blocks of adjacent subjects, each treatment once per block. w The number of blocks is the number of replications. w Any treatment can be adjacent to any other treatment, but not to the same treatment within the block. w Used to control variation in an experiment by accounting for spatial effects.

Randomized (Complete) Block Design w Sample Layout: Each horizontal row represents a block. There are 4 blocks (I-IV) and 4 treatments (A -D) in this example. Block I II IV ABCD DABC BDCA CABD

Always consider… w Lack of realism is a major weakness of experiments. Is it possible to duplicate the conditions that we want?

Factorial Designs w Careful selection of the combinations of factor levels in the experiment w Provide information on factor interaction w Regression model includes: n n n Main effects for each of the k factors Two-way interaction terms for all pairs of factors Three-way interaction terms for all pairs of factors … K-way interaction terms of all combinations of k-factors.