- Slides: 37
PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN
• The elements of design: line, shape, color, form, texture, space, motion, & value-must be organized in such a way to satisfy the artist’s expressive intent. • In two dimensional art this organization is called composition, but the more inclusive term, that applies to all kinds of art, is design. • The task of making the decisions involved in designing a work of art would be difficult were it not for certain guidelines that, once understood, become instinctive.
Principles of design. • These guidelines are usually known as the principles of design. • The principles of design are unity and variety, balance, emphasis and focal point, proportion and scale, rhythm.
Unity and variety Artist’s Goal Total Unity = Blandness Total Variety = Chaotic Unity: The sense of oneness, of things belonging together and making up a coherent whole. Variety: Differences that provide interest and contrast.
Conceptual Unity: art unified through a unity of ideas.
Annette Messager. Mes Voeux. 1989. framed photographs and handwritten texts, suspended with twine; 59 x 15 ¾” • Conceptual unity asks for our interpretation. • Photos all portray different parts of the body • Repeated text within frames • Text and photos together as groupings represent different aspects of the human figure
• Conceptual Unity • • • Art unified by ideas instead of basic elements • Joseph Cornell – selected and arranged objects to create a conceptual unity that was meaningful to him based on his dreams, nostalgia, and fantasies. Joseph Cornell Untitled (Medici Princess). Mixed Media. c 1948.
Joseph Cornell. The Hotel Eden. 1945. Assemblage with music box, 15 1/8 x 4 3/8”
BALANCE Isamu Noguchi. Red Cube. 1968. Steel painted red. Marine Midland Bank, New York Visual Weight refers to the apparent “heaviness” or “lightness” of the forms arranged in a composition, as gauged by how insistently they draw our eyes. When visual weight is equally distributed to either side of a felt or implied center of gravity, you perceive that the composition is balanced. • Symmetrical Balance Near or exact matching of left and right sides of a three-dimensional form or • two-dimensional compositions • Asymmetrical Balance • not symmetrical – • composition has two sides that do not match.
Symmetrical Balance • With symmetrical balance, the implied center of gravity is the vertical axis, an imagery line drawn down the center of the composition. • Forms on either side of the axis match one another in size, shape, and placement. • Sometime it can so perfect both sides are mirror images. • Sometimes the images are very close but not exactly is called relieved symmetry.
Relieved Symmetry or Approximate Symmetry Georgia O’ Keefe. Deer’s Skull with Pedernal. 1936. Oil on canvas, 36 x 30”.
Newar artists at Densatil Monastery, Central Tibet. Thirteen. Deity Jnanadani Mandala. 1417 -47. opaque watercolor on cotton, cloth, 33 ½ x 28 7/8
Approximate Symmetry or relieved Fridia Kahlo. The Two Fridas. 1939. Oil on canvas, 5’ 8 ½” square.
ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE • “Asymmetrical composition has two sides that do not match. • If it seems to be balanced, that is because the visual weights in the two halves are very similar. • “Heavy & light ?
Gustav Klimt. Death and Life. Before 1911, finished 1915. 5’ 10 x 6’ 6”
Joseph Mallory Turner; The Burning of the Houses of Parliament. C. 1835. Oil on canvas, 36 1/4 x 48 ½”
Edouard Manet. A Bar at the Folies-Bergere. 1881 -82. Oil on canvas, 37 ¾ x 51 ¼”
Balance Encourages our active participation in looking. Leads your eyes around the work, artists structure the experience. Helps to communicate a mood or meaning.
EMPHASIS AND SUBORDINATION • Emphasis and subordination are complementary concepts. • Emphasis means that your attention is drawn more to certain parts of a composition than to others. • Sometimes the emphasis is a small clearly defined area called a focal point. • Subordination means that some areas of the composition are purposely made less visually interesting, so that the areas of emphasis stand out.
Henry Ossawa Tanner. The Banjo Lesson. 1893. Oil on canvas, 49 x 35 ½”. Size and placement are used to emphasize figures largest form in painting. Focal point is circular body of banjo with boy’s hand on it Background subordinated so as not to interfere.
Francisco de Goya. Execution of the Third of May, 1808. 1814 -15. Oil on canvas, 8’ 9”x 13’ 4 ”.
SCALE AND PROPORTION Scale and proportion are related to size. • Scale means size in relation to a standard or “normal” size. • Both have to do with size • Scale - overall size • Scale, alone, can change the meaning of a work of art. • Proportion - relative size of objects within the work of art • Hierarchical Scale – the use of scale to indicate relative importance Mount Rushmore
Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen. Plantoir, 2001. Stainless steel, aluminum, fiber-reinforced plastic, painted with polyurethane enamel, 23' 11" x 4' 5" x 4' 9". Collection Fundação de Serralves, Porto, Portugal.
Proportion • Proportion refers to size relationships between parts of a whole, or between two or more items perceived as a unit. • Many cultures have developed a fixed set of proportions for depicting a “correct” or “perfect” human form. • Hierarchical scale is the representation of more important figures as larger than less important figures.
Many cultures developed fixed set of proportions for depicting “correct/perfect” human form • Egyptians • Squared grid • Palm of hand basic unit of measurement
Stela of the sculptor Userwer; detail. Eygpt, Dynasty 12, 1991 -1783 B. C. E.
A royal altar to the hand (ikegobo). Benin, 18 th century. Brass, height 18” Hierarchical Scale Use of unnatural proportions to show relative importance of figures • Proportions varied for symbolic or aesthetic purposes • Composition expresses social hierarchy • Indication of relative importance • King most important • Centrally located • Larger than attendants
El Greco. Resurrection. C. 1600 -05. Oil on canvas, 9’ ¼” x 4’ 2”.
Leonardo da Vinci. Study of Human Proportions according to Vitruvius. c. 1485 -90. Pen and ink, 13 ½ x 9 ¾”. “Numerical relationships held the key to beauty, and perfect human proportion reflected a divine order. ” • • • Da Vinci - one of many fascinated with ideas of Vitruvius (Roman Architect 1 st century BCE) • Vetruvius had treatise on architecture that was widely read during Renaissance • Related perfected male form to perfect geometry of square and circle • Figure stands inside square defined by his height and span of his arms • Circle centered at navel
Numerical Relationships A Golden Section • Greek and Roman idea revived by Renaissance artists Key to beauty and perfect human proportions Golden Section Ratio of two segments approx. 1 to 1. 618 Golden Rectangle constructed using proportions When square is cut off from one end remaining shape is also a Golden Rectangle Sequence that repeats itself infinitely and relates to such natural phenomena as spiraling outgrowth of a shell.
Le Corbusier, The Modulor, 1945, Fondation Le. © 2005 Artists Rights Corbusier Society (ARS), New York/ADAGP, Paris/FLC. Two overlapping golden sections.
Rhythm and Repetition Detail of The Hundred Geese. 1270 -1300. Ink on paper, Hand Scroll. 14 x 29” Rhythm – based on repetition that measures out the passing of time, organizing our experience of it. • Repetition of visual elements gives a composition unity, continuity, flow and emphasis
Lorna Simpson. Still from Easy to Remember. 2001. 16 mm film transferred to DVD, sound. 2: 35 minutes looped edition of 1, 1 AP. Courtesy: Sean Kelly Gallery, New York
Edward Hopper. Early Sunday morning. 1930. Oil on canvas, 2’ 11’ x 5’
Piet Mondrian. Broadway Boogie. Woogie. 1942 -43. Oil on canvas, 50 x 50”.
Pablo Picasso. Girl Before a Mirror. 1932. Oil on canvas, 5’ 4” x 4’ 3 ¼”