Prevalence of overweight and obesity and their correlates

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Prevalence of overweight and obesity and their correlates- A cross sectional study among medical

Prevalence of overweight and obesity and their correlates- A cross sectional study among medical students of India M. Athar Ansari, Professor, Department of Community Medicine, J. N. Medical College, A. M. U. , Aligarh (India)-202002 atharansari [email protected] com

Introduction q Obesity - Long-Term Positive Energy Balance q One of today's most important

Introduction q Obesity - Long-Term Positive Energy Balance q One of today's most important 'Public Health Problems’ q 'Global Epidemic' and also one of today's most neglected Public Health Problems q India: Double Burden of Disease M. Athar Ansari (India) 2/23

q Overweight and obesity - rapidly increasing in countries like India q Under nutrition

q Overweight and obesity - rapidly increasing in countries like India q Under nutrition due to Poverty- 30 % in BPL group q Over nutrition and Obesity --- 5 -7% MIG and HIG Urban area q Most productive workforce of the country M. Athar Ansari (India) 3/23

Obesity and Mortality q Morbidly obese individuals (more than 200% ideal body weight) -

Obesity and Mortality q Morbidly obese individuals (more than 200% ideal body weight) - twelve fold increase in mortality Obesity and Diabetes As many as 80% of patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus are obese M. Athar Ansari (India) 4/23

q Mild obesity -- Two fold risk of Diabetes q Moderate obesity -- Five

q Mild obesity -- Two fold risk of Diabetes q Moderate obesity -- Five fold risk of Diabetes q Severe obesity -- Ten fold risk of Diabetes M. Athar Ansari (India) 5/23

World Scenario http: //datajourno. in/tag/obesity/ (accessed on 17. 02. 2016 M. Athar Ansari (India)

World Scenario http: //datajourno. in/tag/obesity/ (accessed on 17. 02. 2016 M. Athar Ansari (India) 6/23

q Globally 1/6 adults - obese q Nearly 2. 8 million individuals die each

q Globally 1/6 adults - obese q Nearly 2. 8 million individuals die each year due to overweight or obesity. (World Health Organization (WHO). World Health Statistics 2. 2012. Geneva: WHO; 2012. Available from: http: //www. who. int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/EN_WHS 2012_Full. pdf, accessed on 17. 02. 2016) M. Athar Ansari (India) 7/23

Indian Scenario q Under-nutrition due to poverty which dominated in the past, is being

Indian Scenario q Under-nutrition due to poverty which dominated in the past, is being rapidly replaced by obesity (World Health Organization (WHO). Global health risks: 5. mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva: Switzerland, WHO; 2009. Available from: http: //www. who. int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/Global. Health. Risks_report_full. pdf, accessed on February 17, 2016). M. Athar Ansari (India) 8/23

Objectives • To find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity in medical students.

Objectives • To find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity in medical students. • To determine certain correlates of overweight and obesity. M. Athar Ansari (India) 10/23

Materials and Methods q. Cross-sectional study - carried out from January, 2014 to December,

Materials and Methods q. Cross-sectional study - carried out from January, 2014 to December, 2014. q Participants - medical students posted in the Department of Community Medicine during 3 rd to 5 th semesters under Rural Health Posting. q Total number of participants - 240 comprising of 150 male and 90 female students. M. Athar Ansari (India) 11/23

q. A pretested questionnaire was given to them and complete personal details, dietary habits

q. A pretested questionnaire was given to them and complete personal details, dietary habits were noted down followed by examination. q Body Mass Index (BMI) was used to categorize the students into underweight, normal, overweight and obese groups. q A BMI of <18. 5 Kg/ m 2 was taken as cut off point for under weight. q Overweight and Obese were taken at the level of 23 Kg/ m 2 and 25 Kg/m 2 and above respectively. q 24 hour recall q Global physical activity questionnaire M. Athar Ansari (India) 12/23

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70. 0 Sex Male (150) Female (90) 70 57. 8 60 50 40 %

70. 0 Sex Male (150) Female (90) 70 57. 8 60 50 40 % 30 23. 3 20. 0 20 11. 1 6. 0 10 7. 7 4. 0 0 Overweight Obese Goyal et al (2010), Aggarwal et al (2008) Underweight Normal M. Athar Ansari (India) 15/23

70 67. 7 Religion 62. 6 60 50 % 40 Hindu Muslim 30 21.

70 67. 7 Religion 62. 6 60 50 % 40 Hindu Muslim 30 21. 1 21. 5 20 8. 3 10 8. 4 7. 8 3. 0 0 Overweight Bharti et al (2008) Obese Underweight Normal M. Athar Ansari (India) 16/23

Calorie Intake Male Female 46. 7 43. 3 50 45 34. 4 40 30.

Calorie Intake Male Female 46. 7 43. 3 50 45 34. 4 40 30. 0 35 30 % 23. 3 22. 2 25 20 15 10 5 0 Adequate Deficient Bharti et al (2008), Mozaffari et al (2007) Excess M. Athar Ansari (India) 17/23

Non-overweight Overweight & Obese 64. 3 Calorie Intake 70 58. 2 60 50 %

Non-overweight Overweight & Obese 64. 3 Calorie Intake 70 58. 2 60 50 % 40 23. 5 30 21. 4 18. 2 14. 3 20 10 0 Adequate Goyal et al (2010) Deficient Excess M. Athar Ansari (India) 18/23

Male Physical Activity 52. 7 60 Female 50. 0 50 40 30. 6 27.

Male Physical Activity 52. 7 60 Female 50. 0 50 40 30. 6 27. 8 % 22. 2 30 16. 7 20 10 0 Low Moderate Jafar et al (2008), Laxamaiah et al (2007), Anjana et al (2014) High M. Athar Ansari (India) 19/23

Physical Activity Non-overweight 60 51. 8 Overweight & Obese 51. 4 50 32. 9

Physical Activity Non-overweight 60 51. 8 Overweight & Obese 51. 4 50 32. 9 40 27. 2 % 21. 4 30 20 15. 3 10 0 Low Rauner et al (2013), Shah et at (2013) Moderate High M. Athar Ansari (India) 20/23

Conclusions q There is urgent need for prevention of obesity and its risk factors

Conclusions q There is urgent need for prevention of obesity and its risk factors among college students. q These findings have enormous significance for developing societies emerging from poverty and continuing to bear the double burden of both form of malnutrition in their populations. q Dietary patterns of urban children being influenced by their socio-economic status and the frequency of eating out. q Promoting healthy eating in schools. q Encouraging outdoor sports. q IEC M. Athar Ansari (India) 21/23

References 1. Aggarwal T, Bhatia RC, Singh D, Sobti PC. Prevalence of obesity and

References 1. Aggarwal T, Bhatia RC, Singh D, Sobti PC. Prevalence of obesity and overweight in affluent adolescents from Ludhiana, Punjab. Indian Pediatrics 2008; 45(6): 500502. 2. Anjana RM, Pradeepa R et al. Physical activity and inactivity patterns in India – results from the ICMR-INDIAB study (Phase-1) [ICMR-INDIAB-5]. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2014; 11: 26. 3. Bharti DR, Deshmukh PR, Garg BS. Correlates of overweight and obesity among school children of Wardha City, Central India, Indian Journal of Medical Research 2008; 127: 539 -543. 4. Goyal RK, Shah. VN, Saboo. BD et al. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Indian Adolescent School Going Children : Its Relationship with Socioeconomic Status and Associated Lifestyle Factors. Journal of Association of Physician of India 2010; 58: 151 -158. M. Athar Ansari (India) 22/23

5. Jafar TH, Qadri Z, Islam, M, Hatcher J, Bhutta ZA, Chaturvedi N. Rise

5. Jafar TH, Qadri Z, Islam, M, Hatcher J, Bhutta ZA, Chaturvedi N. Rise in childhood obesity with persistently high rates of undernutrition among urban school-aged Indo-Asian children. Archives of disease in childhood 2008; 93(5): 373 -8. 6. Laxmaiah A, Nagalla B, Vijayaraghavan K, Nair M. Factors Affecting Prevalence of Overweight Among 12 - to 17 -year-old Urban Adolescents in Hyderabad, India. OBESITY 2007; 15(6): 1384 -1390. 7. Mozaffari H, Nabaei B. Obesity and related risk factors. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2007; 74: 265 -67. 8. Rauner A, Mess F, Woll A. The relationship between physical activity, physical fitness and overweight in adolescents: a systematic review of studies published in or after 2000. BMC Pediatrics 2013; 13: 19. 9. Shah JS, Patel PK, Patel B. Determinants of overweight and obesity among school children in Mehsana District, India. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2013; 6(4): 408 -412. M. Athar Ansari (India) 23/23

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