- Slides: 26
Present Perfect & Past Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Tense Sadašnje svršeno vreme • Present Perfect Tense gradi se od glagola ”to have” u Prostom sadašnjem vremenu (have/has) i prošlog participa (Past Participle) glavnog glagola. Ø • Prošli particip se kod pravilnih glagola gradi kada se na infinitiv doda nastavak –ed, npr. work-worked. Ø • Nepravilni glagoli imaju posebne oblike u prošlom participu i oni se uče napamet (treća kolona nepravilnih glagola), npr. buy-bought. Ø HAVE/HAS + P. P.
Potvrdni oblik Pravilni glagoli: l I have (I’ve) played. l You have (You’ve) played. l He/she/it has (He’s) played. l Nepravilni glagoli: l I have bought. l You have bought. l He/she/it has bought. We have (We’ve) played. You have(You’ve) They have(They’ve)played. l We have bought. You have bought. They have bought.
Upitni oblik • Upitni oblik gradi se inverzijom (u odnosu na potvrdni oblik) pomoćnog glagola ”to have” u sadašnjem vremenu i lične zamenice. l Have I worked? l Have you worked? l Has he/she/it worked? l l Have we worked? Have you worked? Have they worked?
Odrični oblik • Odrični oblik se gradi od odričnog oblika glagola ”have” (odnosno ”has” za treće lice jednine) i prošlog participa glavnog glagola. l I have not (haven’t) worked. l You have not (haven’t) worked. l He/she/it has not (hasn’t) worked. l l We have not (haven’t) worked. You have not (haven’t) worked. They have not (haven’t) worked.
Upotreba 1 Neodređeno vreme pre sada Present Perfect Tense se koristi za radnju koja se desila u prošlosti u neko neodređeno vreme pre sada. Tačno vreme nije važno. Present Perfect Tense se NE MOŽE koristiti sa sledećim vremenskim odrednicama: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. MOŽE se koristiti sa neodređenim vremenskim odrednicama kao što su: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc. Primeri: • I have seen that movie twenty times. • I think I have met him once before. • We have traveled to London several times.
Upotreba 2 Iskustvo Poresent Perfect Tense koristi se za radnju koja kazuje neko životno iskustvo subjekta. U ovom značenju često se javljaju i prilozi ever (ikada) i never (nikad), koji se nalaze između glagola ”to have” i participa prošlog: Primeri: • He has never eaten Chinese food. • Have you ever been to France? • I think I have seen that movie before. • He has never traveled by train.
Upotreba 3 Promena tokom vremena Present Perfect Tense se često koristi kada govorimo o promenama koje su se desile tokom određenog vremenskog perioda (glagoli koji se u ovom kontekstu upotrebljavaju su: grow, become. . . ) Primeri: • You have grown since the last time I saw you. • The government has become more interested in arts education. • Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established. • My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.
Upotreba 4 Postignuća Present Perfect Tense takođe se koristi kada govorimo o postignućima kako pojedinaca tako i čovečanstva, gde se ne spominje određeno vreme. Primeri: • Man has walked on the Moon. • Our son has learned how to read. • Doctors have cured many deadly diseases. • Scientists have split the atom.
Upotreba 5 Očekivana radnja Present Perfect Tense se koristi za očekivanu radnju. U tom smislu koristimo reč yet, koja se nekada ni ne prevodi, ali ima značenje do sad, do ovog trenutka, još uvek. Ona se nalazi na kraju rečenice, i koristi se samo u odričnim i upitnim rečenicama: Primeri: • Has it stopped raining yet? • I haven’t done my essay yet. • James has not finished his homework yet. • Bill has still not arrived.
Upotreba 6 Radnja koja je upravo završena Present Perfect Tense se koristi za radnju koja je upravo završena, te se stoga uz njega često nalazi vremenska odrednica just (upravo). Ovaj prilog se nalazi između glagola to have i participa prošlog. Primeri: • She has just gone out. (Ona je upravo izašla) • He has just opened the window. (On je upravo zatvorio prozor)
Upotreba 7 Radnja koja se dogodila ranije od očekivanog Present Perfect Tense se takođe koristi za radnju koja se dogodila ranije nego što je očekivano. U tom smislu se upotrebljava prilog already (već) koji se nalazi između glagola ”to have” i participa prošlog. Primeri: • He has already posted the letter. (On je već poslao pismo) • We have already finished our homework. (Mi smo već završili domaći)
Upotreba 8 l l l Posledice u sadašnjosti Present Perfect Tense se koristi i za prošlu radnju koja ima vidljive posledice (rezultate) u sadašnjosti. Primeri: • The lift has broken down. We have to use the stairs. (Lift se pokvario. Moramo da idemo stepenicama. ) • I have washed the car. It looks lovely. (Oprao sam kola. Izgledaju odlično. )
Upotreba 9 Više radnji u različito vreme Present Perfect Tense koristi se i kada govorimo o nekoliko različitih radnji koje su se dogodile u prošlosti u različito vreme. Ovim se sugeriše da proces nije dovršen i da je više radnji moguće. Primeri: l • The army has attacked that city five times. l • I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.
Upotreba 10 Trajanje u prošlosti do sada (non-continuous verbs) Present Perfect Tense se koristi sa ”non-continuous” glagolima za radnju koja je počela u prošlosti u traje do sada. Glagoli kao što su live, work, teach, study, takođe se koriste u ovom kontekstu iako nisu ”non-continuous” glagoli. For i since ukazuju ovde na trajanje radnje do sadašnjeg trenutka. Primeri: • I have had a cold for two weeks. • She has lived in England for six months. • Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl. • She has studied English since 2017.
Vremenske odrednice Karakteristične vremenske odrednice uz koje se upotrebljava Present Perfect Tense su: • just • since • already • for • ever • this month • never • this year • so far • recently • in the last year • lately • up to now • today
Past Perfect Tense Davno prošlo vreme • Past Perfect Tense se gradi od pomoćnog glagola “to have” u prošlom prostom vremenu, tj. ”had” i prošlog participa glavnog glagola. HAD + P. P. Potvrdni oblik I had (I’d) worked. We had (We’d) worked. You had (You’d) worked. He/she/it had (He’d) worked. They had (They’d) worked.
Upitni oblik • Upitni oblik se gradi inverzijom (u odnosu na potvrdni oblik) pomoćnog glagola “to have” (u prošlom vremenu) i lične zamenice. Had I worked? Had you worked? Had he/she/it worked? Had we worked? Had you worked? Had they worked?
Odrični oblik • Odrični oblik se gradi od odričnog oblika prošlog vremena glagola “have” i prošlog participa glavnog glagola. l I had not (hadn’t) worked. l You had not (hadn’t) worked. l He/she/it had not (hadn’t) worked. l l l We had not (hadn’t) worked. You had not (hadn’t) worked. They had not (hadn’t) worked.
Upotreba 1 Radnja koja se završila pre neke druge prošle radnje Past Perfect Tense se koristi za radnju koja se završila pre neke druge radnje u prošlosti. Takođe može da se koristi da se pokaže da se nešto dogodilo pre nekog određenog vremena u prošlosti. Primeri: • I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai. • I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet. • Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times. • Had Susan ever studied Thai before she moved to Thailand?
Upotreba 2 Trajanje pre nečega u prošlosti Davno prošlo vreme se koristi sa ”non-continuous” glagolima da se pokaže da je nešto započeto u prošlosti i da je trajalo sve do neke druge radnje u prošlosti. Glagoli kao što su live, work, teach, study, takođe se koriste u ovom kontekstu iako nisu ”non-continuous” glagoli. Primeri: • We had that car for ten years before it broke down. • By the time Alex finished his studies, he had been in London for over eight years. • They felt bad about selling the house because they had owned it for more than forty years. • She had lived in Berlin before she moved to France.
”After” i ”before” Past Perfect Tense se upotrebljava u zavisnim rečenicama uz ”after” i ”before”. Takođe se mogu pojaviti i prilozi ”when” i ”because” Primeri: • After we had reached the top, we began to feel tired. (Pošto smo se popeli na vrh počeli smo da osećamo umor. ) • His friends tried to help him after he had lost all his money. (Prijatelji su pokušali da mu pomognu nakon što je izgubio sav svoj novac. ) • She had studied English before she moved to America. (Studirala je engleski jezik pre nego što se preselila u Ameriku. ) • When he had finished his homework, he went to play. (Kada je završio domaći, izašao je da se igra. ) • Because he’d spent so much, he had very little money. (Pošto je bio potrošio toliko, imao je vrlo malo novca. )
Exercises: I Put the verbs into the correct form of Present Perfect: q Karen has sent me an e-mail today. (to send). q Dave and Pat have visited the museum. (to visit) q I have been at the pet shop. (to be) q They have already packed their rucksacks. (to pack) q Marcus had an accident. (to have) q We have done the shopping for our grandmother. (to do) q I have just cleaned my bike. (to clean) q I have never seen that movie. (to see)
II Put the verbs into the correct form (Past Perfect) □The storm destroyed the sandcastle that we had built (build). □He had not been (not / be) to Cape Town before 1997. □When she went out to play, she had already done (do / already) her homework. □My brother ate all of the cake that our mum had made (make). □ The doctor took off the plaster that he had put (put on) six weeks before. □The waiter brought a drink that I had not ordered (not / order). □I could not remember the poem we had learnt (learn) the week before. □Had he phoned (he / phone) Angie before he went to see her in London?
III Complete the sentences (Present Perfect or Past Perfect Tense): q Have you ever been (you ever be) to America? q He wanted to repair our washing machine that had broken (break) down a few days before. q Before he rang at my door, he had tried (try) to call me on my mobile phone. q The reporter said that a car had crashed (crash) into a stop sign just before reaching the crossroads. q He has lived (live) in Rome since he was a teenager. q She loves Paris. She has been (be) there many times. q I haven’t seen (see) you since last Friday. q She hasn’t spoken (speak) to me for two weeks.
IV Use the verbs in brackets in the correct tenses – Present Perfect or Past Perfect Tense: q We have washed (wash) the dishes. They’re clean now. q Has your course started (your course, start) yet? q The airplane has landed (land). The pilot is just getting out. q We haven’t played (not play) tennis since we were children. q Mary had given (give) me Tony's address before she left. q Before we reached the station we saw that we had lost (lose) our way. q All the tickets had been (be) sold before the concert began. q They took a shower after they had finished (finish) the game.