Preparing for the Civil War Cultural Political and

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Preparing for the Civil War Cultural, Political, and Economic Gap between North and South

Preparing for the Civil War Cultural, Political, and Economic Gap between North and South

Current Political Tension Are there any correlations between current political tension and the tension

Current Political Tension Are there any correlations between current political tension and the tension that led to the Civil War? n Do you think a Civil War could occur today? n

Historiography of Civil War n How would each of the following schools of thought

Historiography of Civil War n How would each of the following schools of thought view the causes of the Civil War? - Progressivism - Liberalism - Republicanism - Multiculturalism

Cotton Production after the invention of Cotton Gin 1793

Cotton Production after the invention of Cotton Gin 1793

Ban on International Slave Trade n Let the first of January, the day of

Ban on International Slave Trade n Let the first of January, the day of the abolition of the slave trade in our country, be set apart in every year, as a day of publick thanksgiving for that mercy. Let the history of the sufferings of our brethren, and of their deliverance, descend by this means to our children, to the remotest generations. A Thanksgiving sermon, preached January 1, 1808, in St. Thomas's (or the African Episcopal) Church, Philadelphia, by Absalom Jones

Slave Rebellions http: //www. pbs. org/independentlens/ natturner/slave_rebellions. html n Constant fear in minds of

Slave Rebellions http: //www. pbs. org/independentlens/ natturner/slave_rebellions. html n Constant fear in minds of South n Plantation owners fear manumission / emancipation / abolition n Demonstrates presence of religion, education, and organization amongst slaves n

Geographic Concentrations of Cotton Production

Geographic Concentrations of Cotton Production

Concentration of enslaved populations in US

Concentration of enslaved populations in US

King Cotton n Cotton 50% of American exports (1840) – North and Britain benefited

King Cotton n Cotton 50% of American exports (1840) – North and Britain benefited Monopolistic n Financial instability n Dependence on a one-crop economy n

Economics of Slavery n n Cost of Slaves – Fed on $0. 10 a

Economics of Slavery n n Cost of Slaves – Fed on $0. 10 a day – Field hands could cost 1200 -1800 by 1860 4 million slaves by 1860 Slaves as investments ($2 billion by 1860) Profitable? – Southern farms were 35 -53% more efficient overall than Northern farms – By 1890 slave prices would have increased 50%

Regional Infrastructure South North n Some railroad n Railroad boom development beginning n Less

Regional Infrastructure South North n Some railroad n Railroad boom development beginning n Less access to n Numerous paved roads and canals n Dependent on North n Not as dependent and Europe on Europe

Result South fails to industrialize n South lacks manufactured goods n North and Northwest

Result South fails to industrialize n South lacks manufactured goods n North and Northwest connected more n

Growing Economic Differences- Overview North n Industrial Revolution n Hired Labor n Canals, Turnpikes,

Growing Economic Differences- Overview North n Industrial Revolution n Hired Labor n Canals, Turnpikes, Railroads n Favored Tariffs and Protectionism n n n South Agrarian Society Slave Labor Lack of infrastructure Against Tariffs. Nullification argument

Slavery VS. Industrialism South North n Guiding Principles-Free “Benevolent Paternalism” market capitalism n Old

Slavery VS. Industrialism South North n Guiding Principles-Free “Benevolent Paternalism” market capitalism n Old Order- Feudalism n New Order / Social Mobility n Based off of Ancient n Based off of Enlightenment philosophies - Aristotle philosophies- Smith n King Cotton- lack of n Industrial Rev- growing economic diversity = dependence on slavery demands for competition

Result North and South want to expand their economic systems n Both encourage strict

Result North and South want to expand their economic systems n Both encourage strict adherence to principles n Carries over into political and social divisions between North and South n

Frederick Douglass Speech n Tone of the early part of the speech: What, to

Frederick Douglass Speech n Tone of the early part of the speech: What, to the American slave, is your 4 th of July? I answer; a day that reveals to him, more than all other days in the year, the gross injustice and cruelty to which he is the constant victim. To him, your celebration is a sham; your boasted liberty, an unholy license; your national greatness, swelling vanity; your sound of rejoicing are empty and heartless; your denunciation of tyrants brass fronted impudence; your shout of liberty and equality, hollow mockery; your prayers and hymns, your sermons and thanks-givings, with all your religious parade and solemnity, are to him, mere bombast, fraud, deception, impiety, and hypocrisy -- a thin veil to cover up crimes which would disgrace a nation of savages. There is not a nation on the earth guilty of practices more shocking and bloody than are the people of the United States, at this very hour.

Frederick Douglass Speech Continued n Change in tone by conclusion: Allow me to say,

Frederick Douglass Speech Continued n Change in tone by conclusion: Allow me to say, in conclusion, notwithstanding the dark picture I have this day presented, of the state of the nation, I do not despair of this country. There are forces in operation which must inevitably work the downfall of slavery. "The arm of the Lord is not shortened, " and the doom of slavery is certain. I, therefore, leave off where I began, with hope. While drawing encouragement from "the Declaration of Independence, " the great principles it contains, and the genius of American Institutions, my spirit is also cheered by the obvious tendencies of the age. Nations do not now stand in the same relation to each other that they did ages ago. No nation can now shut itself up from the surrounding world and trot round in the same old path of its fathers without interference. The time was when such could be done. Long established customs of hurtful character could formerly fence themselves in, and do their evil work with social impunity. Knowledge was then confined and enjoyed by the privileged few, and the multitude walked on in mental darkness.

Political Differences North South n Federal Government n States’ Rights n Free Soil Party

Political Differences North South n Federal Government n States’ Rights n Free Soil Party n Popular Sovereignty n Abolitionists n Fire Eaters n Republican Party n Nullification n Death of Whigs n Divisions in Democratic Party

Ineffective Presidents n n 1848 - Zachary Taylor Whig (dies in office) 1850 -

Ineffective Presidents n n 1848 - Zachary Taylor Whig (dies in office) 1850 - Millard Fillmore Whig 1852 - Franklin Pierce Democratic 1856 - James Buchanan Democratic 1848 and 1852 - Free Soil Candidate 1856 - Know Nothing or Nativist Candidate

Compromise of 1850 CA free state n Other territories from Mexico- popular sovereignty n

Compromise of 1850 CA free state n Other territories from Mexico- popular sovereignty n Wash D. C. end of slave trade n Fugitive Slave n Challenges Missouri Compromise n

Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 Negates Missouri Compromise n Unofficial deal Nebraska Free and Kansas slave

Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 Negates Missouri Compromise n Unofficial deal Nebraska Free and Kansas slave n Popular Sovereignty= Bleeding of Kansas n Lecompton Constitution Controversy n

Dred Scott Court Case 1857 n n n Dred Scott lived in Free State

Dred Scott Court Case 1857 n n n Dred Scott lived in Free State / Territory moved to slave state Supreme Court ruled against Scott Supreme Court determines slaves are property not citizens African Americans cannot be citizens- Chief Justice Taney Congress cannot make laws about slavery Missouri Compromise, Compromise of 1850 and Kansas Nebraska Act - unconstitutional

Panic of 1857 Financial Crisis in North n Speculation bottoms out n Grain surplus

Panic of 1857 Financial Crisis in North n Speculation bottoms out n Grain surplus n South protected by cotton industry n South becomes more confident of economic independence n

Lincoln Douglas Debates 1858 n n n n Illinois Senatorial Debates Thousands of People

Lincoln Douglas Debates 1858 n n n n Illinois Senatorial Debates Thousands of People came to watch Douglas takes advantage of Lincoln’s inexperience at first Douglas- popular sovereignty and fear mongering Lincoln- immorality of slavery and illogical nature of popular sovereignty Lincoln does not call for equality Lincoln loses the battle but wins the war

John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry 1859 n n Brown led a raid on

John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry 1859 n n Brown led a raid on armory Failed slave rebellion Executed for Treason Enraged North and South (for different reasons)

Popular Portrayals of John Brown

Popular Portrayals of John Brown

Election of 1860

Election of 1860

Election of 1860 Consequences n n n Lincoln wins close election Divisions help Lincoln

Election of 1860 Consequences n n n Lincoln wins close election Divisions help Lincoln South is ready for Secession

Cultural Differences North n Socially Diverse n Protestant Work Ethic n Valued Labor n

Cultural Differences North n Socially Diverse n Protestant Work Ethic n Valued Labor n Popularity of Uncle Tom’s Cabin South n Aristocracy n “Heirs to European Society” n Ancient Republics’ negative view of labor