POWERPOINT LECTURE SLIDE PRESENTATION by ZARA OAKES MS

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POWERPOINT® LECTURE SLIDE PRESENTATION by ZARA OAKES, MS, The University of Texas at Austin

POWERPOINT® LECTURE SLIDE PRESENTATION by ZARA OAKES, MS, The University of Texas at Austin UNIT 1 2 Molecular Interactions HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AN INTEGRATED APPROACH DEE UNGLAUB SILVERTHORN Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings FOURTH EDITION

About this Chapter § Atoms, ions, and molecules § Types of chemical bonds §

About this Chapter § Atoms, ions, and molecules § Types of chemical bonds § Biomolecules § Solutions, concentrations, and p. H § Protein interactions Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Atoms § Structure of an atom § Protons § Electrons § Neutrons § Nucleus

Atoms § Structure of an atom § Protons § Electrons § Neutrons § Nucleus § Electron orbitals or shells Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Elements § Essential § Trace § Atomic number § Atomic mass Copyright © 2007

Elements § Essential § Trace § Atomic number § Atomic mass Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Isotopes § Isotopes vary in mass § Neutrons § Radioisotopes § Unstable nuclei §

Isotopes § Isotopes vary in mass § Neutrons § Radioisotopes § Unstable nuclei § Emit energy radiation § Medical uses as tracers Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Ions § Ions are charged atoms § Cations § Positively charged (+) § Anions

Ions § Ions are charged atoms § Cations § Positively charged (+) § Anions § Negatively charged (-) Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Atoms, Elements, Ions, and Isotopes A map showing the relationship among atoms, elements, ions,

Atoms, Elements, Ions, and Isotopes A map showing the relationship among atoms, elements, ions, and isotopes Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -1

Four Primary Roles of Electrons § Covalent bonds § Ions § High-energy electrons §

Four Primary Roles of Electrons § Covalent bonds § Ions § High-energy electrons § Free radicals Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Molecules and Compounds § Bonds capture energy § Bonds link atoms § Molecules versus

Molecules and Compounds § Bonds capture energy § Bonds link atoms § Molecules versus compounds Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Molecules and Compounds Shared electrons in the outer shells of atoms form covalent bonds

Molecules and Compounds Shared electrons in the outer shells of atoms form covalent bonds Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -2 b

Types of Chemical Bonds § Covalent § Polar versus nonpolar § Ionic § Hydrogen

Types of Chemical Bonds § Covalent § Polar versus nonpolar § Ionic § Hydrogen § Van der Waals Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -3

Covalent and Ionic Bonds § Covalent bonds § Share a pair of electrons §

Covalent and Ionic Bonds § Covalent bonds § Share a pair of electrons § Ionic bonds § Transfer an electron § Opposite charges attract Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Covalent and Ionic Bonds Ions and ionic bonds Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.

Covalent and Ionic Bonds Ions and ionic bonds Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -4 (1 of 3)

Covalent and Ionic Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Covalent and Ionic Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -4 (2 of 3)

Covalent and Ionic Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Covalent and Ionic Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -4 (3 of 3)

Ionic Bonds and Ions Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin

Ionic Bonds and Ions Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Hydrogen and Van der Waals § Hydrogen bonds § Weak and partial § Water

Hydrogen and Van der Waals § Hydrogen bonds § Weak and partial § Water surface tension § Van der Waals forces § Weak and nonspecific Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Hydrogen and Van der Waals Hydrogen bonds between water molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson

Hydrogen and Van der Waals Hydrogen bonds between water molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -5 a

Hydrogen and Van der Waals Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as

Hydrogen and Van der Waals Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -5 b

Molecular Shape and Function § Molecular bonds § Covalent § Weak § Chemical formula

Molecular Shape and Function § Molecular bonds § Covalent § Weak § Chemical formula § Functional groups Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Molecular Shape and Function Chemical structures and formulas of some biological molecules Copyright ©

Molecular Shape and Function Chemical structures and formulas of some biological molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -6 b

Functional Groups § Direct reactivity of a molecule § Common examples in biosystems Copyright

Functional Groups § Direct reactivity of a molecule § Common examples in biosystems Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Functional Groups Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Functional Groups Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Types of Biomolecules § Carbohydrates § Lipids § Proteins § Nucleotides and nucleic acids

Types of Biomolecules § Carbohydrates § Lipids § Proteins § Nucleotides and nucleic acids Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Carbohydrates § Most abundant § Carbon § Hydrogen § Oxygen § Simple § Monosaccharides

Carbohydrates § Most abundant § Carbon § Hydrogen § Oxygen § Simple § Monosaccharides (glucose, ribose) § Complex § Polysaccharides (glycogen, starch) Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Carbohydrates Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2

Carbohydrates Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -7 (1 of 3)

Carbohydrates Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2

Carbohydrates Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -7 (2 of 3)

Carbohydrates Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2

Carbohydrates Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -7 (3 of 3)

Lipids § Carbon and hydrogen (little oxygen) § Structurally diverse § Eicosanoids § Steroids

Lipids § Carbon and hydrogen (little oxygen) § Structurally diverse § Eicosanoids § Steroids § Phospholipids § Triglycerides § Glycerol § Fatty acid chains § Saturated and unsaturated Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Lipids and Lipid-Related Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin

Lipids and Lipid-Related Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -8 (1 of 5)

Lipids and Lipid-Related Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin

Lipids and Lipid-Related Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -8 (2 of 5)

Lipids and Lipid-Related Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin

Lipids and Lipid-Related Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -8 (3 of 5)

Lipids and Lipid-Related Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin

Lipids and Lipid-Related Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -8 (4 of 5)

Lipids and Lipid-Related Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin

Lipids and Lipid-Related Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -8 (5 of 5)

Proteins § Amino acids § Essential § Amino group § Acid group § Protein

Proteins § Amino acids § Essential § Amino group § Acid group § Protein structure § Polypeptides § Primary through quaternary § Most versatile Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Levels of Organization in Protein Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing

Levels of Organization in Protein Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -9 (1 of 6)

Levels of Organization in Protein Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing

Levels of Organization in Protein Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -9 (2 of 6)

Levels of Organization in Protein Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing

Levels of Organization in Protein Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -9 (3 of 6)

Levels of Organization in Protein Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing

Levels of Organization in Protein Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -9 (4 of 6)

Levels of Organization in Protein Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing

Levels of Organization in Protein Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -9 (5 of 6)

Levels of Organization in Protein Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing

Levels of Organization in Protein Molecules Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -9 (6 of 6)

Proteins § Fibrous § Globular Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as

Proteins § Fibrous § Globular Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -10

Combination Biomolecules § Lipoproteins § Blood transport molecules § Glycoproteins § Membrane structure §

Combination Biomolecules § Lipoproteins § Blood transport molecules § Glycoproteins § Membrane structure § Glycolipids § Membrane receptors Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Nucleotides, DNA, and RNA § Composition § Base, sugar, and phosphate(s) § Transmit and

Nucleotides, DNA, and RNA § Composition § Base, sugar, and phosphate(s) § Transmit and store § Information (genetic code) § Energy transfer molecules § ATP, c. AMP, NAD, and FAD Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Nucleotides, DNA, and RNA Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin

Nucleotides, DNA, and RNA Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -12 a–b

Nucleotides, DNA, and RNA Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin

Nucleotides, DNA, and RNA Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -12 c–d

Aqueous Solutions § Aqueous § Water-based § Solution § Solute dissolves in solvent §

Aqueous Solutions § Aqueous § Water-based § Solution § Solute dissolves in solvent § Solubility § Ease of dissolving § Hydrophobic § Hydrophilic Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Aqueous Solubility Sodium chloride dissolves in water Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. ,

Aqueous Solubility Sodium chloride dissolves in water Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -14

Concentrations § Amount of solute in a solution § Mole § 6. 02 1023

Concentrations § Amount of solute in a solution § Mole § 6. 02 1023 units of substance § Molarity § One mole in one liter § Equivalents § Molarity multiplied by charge Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Concentrations § Weight /volume § Grams solute/ml solvent § Volume/volume § Percent solution Copyright

Concentrations § Weight /volume § Grams solute/ml solvent § Volume/volume § Percent solution Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Hydrogen Ion Concentration (p. H) § Acid § Contributes H+ to solution § Base

Hydrogen Ion Concentration (p. H) § Acid § Contributes H+ to solution § Base § Decreases H+ in solution § p. H § - log [H+] § Buffer minimizes changes of p. H Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Hydrogen Ion Concentration (p. H) p. H scale Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc.

Hydrogen Ion Concentration (p. H) p. H scale Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -15

Protein Interactions § Soluble and insoluble § Binding § Selectivity § Specificity § Affinity

Protein Interactions § Soluble and insoluble § Binding § Selectivity § Specificity § Affinity Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Selective Binding: Induced-Fit Model The induced-fit model of protein-ligand binding Copyright © 2007 Pearson

Selective Binding: Induced-Fit Model The induced-fit model of protein-ligand binding Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -16

Factors that Affect Affinity § Isoforms § Activation § Cofactors § Lysis Copyright ©

Factors that Affect Affinity § Isoforms § Activation § Cofactors § Lysis Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -18

Modulators Alter Binding or Activity Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as

Modulators Alter Binding or Activity Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Competitive Inhibition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure

Competitive Inhibition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -19

Allosteric Modulation Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure

Allosteric Modulation Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -20 a

Allosteric Modulation Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure

Allosteric Modulation Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 2 -20 b

Physical Regulators § Temperature § p. H § Concentration of protein § Concentration of

Physical Regulators § Temperature § p. H § Concentration of protein § Concentration of ligand Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Summary § Atoms in review § Four types of chemical bonds § Four kinds

Summary § Atoms in review § Four types of chemical bonds § Four kinds of biomolecules § Aqueous solutions and p. H § Proteins in focus Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings