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Power. Point® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Skeletal System

Power. Point® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Skeletal System 5 PART A Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Skeletal System § Parts of the skeletal system § Bones (skeleton) § Joints

The Skeletal System § Parts of the skeletal system § Bones (skeleton) § Joints § Cartilages § Ligaments § Two subdivisions of the skeleton § Axial skeleton § Appendicular skeleton Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Functions of Bones § Support the body § Protect soft organs § Allow movement

Functions of Bones § Support the body § Protect soft organs § Allow movement due to attached skeletal muscles § Store minerals and fats § Blood cell formation Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bones of the Human Body § The adult skeleton has 206 bones § Two

Bones of the Human Body § The adult skeleton has 206 bones § Two basic types of bone tissue § Compact bone § Homogeneous § Spongy bone § Small needle-like pieces of bone § Many open spaces Figure 5. 2 b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape Figure 5. 1 Copyright © 2009

Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape Figure 5. 1 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Classification of Bones § Long bones § Typically longer than they are wide §

Classification of Bones § Long bones § Typically longer than they are wide § Have a shaft with heads at both ends § Contain mostly compact bone § Example: § Femur § Humerus Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Classification of Bones § Short bones § Generally cube-shape § Contain mostly spongy bone

Classification of Bones § Short bones § Generally cube-shape § Contain mostly spongy bone § Example: § Carpals § Tarsals Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Classification of Bones § Flat bones § Thin, flattened, and usually curved § Two

Classification of Bones § Flat bones § Thin, flattened, and usually curved § Two thin layers of compact bone surround a layer of spongy bone § Example: § Skull § Ribs § Sternum Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Classification of Bones § Irregular bones § Irregular shape § Do not fit into

Classification of Bones § Irregular bones § Irregular shape § Do not fit into other bone classification categories § Example: § Vertebrae § Hip bones Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Anatomy of a Long Bone § Diaphysis § Shaft § Composed of compact bone

Anatomy of a Long Bone § Diaphysis § Shaft § Composed of compact bone § Epiphysis § Ends of the bone § Composed mostly of spongy bone Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Anatomy of a Long Bone § Periosteum § Outside covering of the diaphysis §

Anatomy of a Long Bone § Periosteum § Outside covering of the diaphysis § Fibrous connective tissue membrane § Sharpey’s fibers § Secure periosteum to underlying bone § Arteries § Supply bone cells with nutrients Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Anatomy of a Long Bone § Articular cartilage § Covers the external surface of

Anatomy of a Long Bone § Articular cartilage § Covers the external surface of the epiphyses § Made of hyaline cartilage § Decreases friction at joint surfaces § Epiphyseal plate § Flat plate of hyaline cartilage seen in young, growing bone § Epiphyseal line § Remnant of the epiphyseal plate § Seen in adult bones Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Anatomy of a Long Bone § Medullary cavity § Cavity inside of the shaft

Anatomy of a Long Bone § Medullary cavity § Cavity inside of the shaft § Contains yellow marrow (mostly fat) in adults § Contains red marrow (for blood cell formation) in infants Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bone Markings § Surface features of bones § Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons,

Bone Markings § Surface features of bones § Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments § Passages for nerves and blood vessels § Categories of bone markings § Projections or processes—grow out from the bone surface § Depressions or cavities—indentations Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bone Markings Table 5. 1 (1 of 2) Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Bone Markings Table 5. 1 (1 of 2) Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bone Markings Table 5. 1 (2 of 2) Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Bone Markings Table 5. 1 (2 of 2) Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Microscopic Anatomy of Bone § Osteon (Haversian system) § A unit of bone containing

Microscopic Anatomy of Bone § Osteon (Haversian system) § A unit of bone containing central canal and matrix rings § Central (Haversian) canal § Opening in the center of an osteon § Carries blood vessels and nerves § Perforating (Volkman’s) canal § Canal perpendicular to the central canal § Carries blood vessels and nerves Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Figure 5. 3 a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Figure 5. 3 a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Microscopic Anatomy of Bone § Lacunae § Cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes) § Arranged

Microscopic Anatomy of Bone § Lacunae § Cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes) § Arranged in concentric rings § Lamellae § Rings around the central canal § Sites of lacunae Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Microscopic Anatomy of Bone § Canaliculi § Tiny canals § Radiate from the central

Microscopic Anatomy of Bone § Canaliculi § Tiny canals § Radiate from the central canal to lacunae § Form a transport system connecting all bone cells to a nutrient supply Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Formation of the Human Skeleton § In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage

Formation of the Human Skeleton § In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage § During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone § Cartilage remains in isolated areas § Bridge of the nose § Parts of ribs § Joints Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bone Growth (Ossification) § Epiphyseal plates allow for lengthwise growth of long bones during

Bone Growth (Ossification) § Epiphyseal plates allow for lengthwise growth of long bones during childhood § New cartilage is continuously formed § Older cartilage becomes ossified § Cartilage is broken down § Enclosed cartilage is digested away, opening up a medullary cavity § Bone replaces cartilage through the action of osteoblasts Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bone Growth (Ossification) § Bones are remodeled and lengthened until growth stops § Bones

Bone Growth (Ossification) § Bones are remodeled and lengthened until growth stops § Bones are remodeled in response to two factors § Blood calcium levels § Pull of gravity and muscles on the skeleton § Bones grow in width (called appositional growth) Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Long Bone Formation and Growth Articular cartilage Hyaline cartilage Spongy bone New center of

Long Bone Formation and Growth Articular cartilage Hyaline cartilage Spongy bone New center of bone growth New bone forming Epiphyseal plate cartilage Growth in bone width Medullary cavity Bone starting to replace cartilage Growth in bone length Bone collar New bone forming Epiphyseal plate cartilage Hyaline cartilage model In an embryo Blood vessels In a fetus In a child (a) Figure 5. 4 a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Long Bone Formation and Growth Figure 5. 4 b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education,

Long Bone Formation and Growth Figure 5. 4 b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Types of Bone Cells § Osteocytes—mature bone cells § Osteoblasts—bone-forming cells § Osteoclasts—bone-destroying cells

Types of Bone Cells § Osteocytes—mature bone cells § Osteoblasts—bone-forming cells § Osteoclasts—bone-destroying cells § Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium in response to parathyroid hormone § Bone remodeling is performed by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Power. Point® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Skeletal System:

Power. Point® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Skeletal System: Fractures 5 PART A Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bone Fractures § Fracture—break in a bone § Types of bone fractures § Closed

Bone Fractures § Fracture—break in a bone § Types of bone fractures § Closed (simple) fracture—break that does not penetrate the skin § Open (compound) fracture—broken bone penetrates through the skin § Bone fractures are treated by reduction and immobilization Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Common Types of Fractures Table 5. 2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,

Common Types of Fractures Table 5. 2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Repair of Bone Fractures § Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed § Break is splinted

Repair of Bone Fractures § Hematoma (blood-filled swelling) is formed § Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus § Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus § Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch Hematoma Internal callus (fibrous tissue and cartilage) External callus Bony callus of spongy bone New blood vessels Healed fracture Spongy bone trabecula Hematoma formation Fibrocartilage callus formation Bony callus formation Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bone remodeling

The Axial Skeleton § Forms the longitudinal axis of the body § Divided into

The Axial Skeleton § Forms the longitudinal axis of the body § Divided into three parts § Skull § Vertebral column § Bony thorax Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Skull § Two sets of bones § Cranium § Facial bones § Bones

The Skull § Two sets of bones § Cranium § Facial bones § Bones are joined by sutures § Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Human Skull, Lateral View Figure 5. 7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,

Human Skull, Lateral View Figure 5. 7 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Human Skull, Superior View Figure 5. 8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,

Human Skull, Superior View Figure 5. 8 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Human Skull, Inferior View Figure 5. 9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,

Human Skull, Inferior View Figure 5. 9 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Human Skull, Anterior View Figure 5. 11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,

Human Skull, Anterior View Figure 5. 11 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Hyoid Bone § The only bone that does not articulate with another bone

The Hyoid Bone § The only bone that does not articulate with another bone § Serves as a moveable base for the tongue § Aids in swallowing and speech Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Power. Point® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Skeletal System:

Power. Point® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Skeletal System: Fetal. Vertebrae 5 PART A Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Fetal Skull § The fetal skull is large compared to the infant’s total

The Fetal Skull § The fetal skull is large compared to the infant’s total body length § Fontanels—fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones § Allow the brain to grow § Convert to bone within 24 months after birth Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Fetal Skull Figure 5. 13 a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,

The Fetal Skull Figure 5. 13 a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Fetal Skull Figure 5. 13 b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,

The Fetal Skull Figure 5. 13 b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Vertebral Column § Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location

The Vertebral Column § Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location § There are 24 single vertebral bones separated by intervertebral discs § Seven cervical vertebrae are in the neck § Twelve thoracic vertebrae are in the chest region § Five lumbar vertebrae are associated with the lower back Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Vertebral Column § Nine vertebrae fuse to form two composite bones § Sacrum

The Vertebral Column § Nine vertebrae fuse to form two composite bones § Sacrum § Coccyx Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Vertebral Column § The spine has a normal curvature § Primary curvatures are

The Vertebral Column § The spine has a normal curvature § Primary curvatures are the spinal curvatures of the thoracic and sacral regions § Present from birth § Secondary curvatures are the spinal curvatures of the cervical and lumbar regions § Develop after birth Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Vertebral Column Figure 5. 15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing

The Vertebral Column Figure 5. 15 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Vertebral Column Figure 5. 16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing

The Vertebral Column Figure 5. 16 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

A Typical Vertebrae, Superior View Figure 5. 17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

A Typical Vertebrae, Superior View Figure 5. 17 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Figure 5. 18 a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Figure 5. 18 a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Figure 5. 18 b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Figure 5. 18 b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Figure 5. 18 c Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Figure 5. 18 c Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Figure 5. 18 d Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae Figure 5. 18 d Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Sacrum and Coccyx § Sacrum § Formed by the fusion of five vertebrae §

Sacrum and Coccyx § Sacrum § Formed by the fusion of five vertebrae § Coccyx § Formed from the fusion of three to five vertebrae § “Tailbone, ” or remnant of a tail that other vertebrates have Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Sacrum and Coccyx Figure 5. 19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing

Sacrum and Coccyx Figure 5. 19 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Bony Thorax § Forms a cage to protect major organs § Consists of

The Bony Thorax § Forms a cage to protect major organs § Consists of three parts § Sternum § Ribs § True ribs (pairs 1– 7) § False ribs (pairs 8– 12) § Floating ribs (pairs 11– 12) § Thoracic vertebrae Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Bony Thorax Figure 5. 20 a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,

The Bony Thorax Figure 5. 20 a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Power. Point® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Skeletal System:

Power. Point® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Skeletal System: Appendicular 5 PART A Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Appendicular Skeleton § Composed of 126 bones § Limbs (appendages) § Pectoral girdle

The Appendicular Skeleton § Composed of 126 bones § Limbs (appendages) § Pectoral girdle § Pelvic girdle Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle § Composed of two bones § Clavicle—collarbone § Scapula—shoulder blade

The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle § Composed of two bones § Clavicle—collarbone § Scapula—shoulder blade § These bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bones of the Shoulder Girdle Figure 5. 21 b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education,

Bones of the Shoulder Girdle Figure 5. 21 b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bones of the Shoulder Girdle Figure 5. 21 c–d Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education,

Bones of the Shoulder Girdle Figure 5. 21 c–d Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bones of the Upper Limbs § Humerus § Forms the arm § Single bone

Bones of the Upper Limbs § Humerus § Forms the arm § Single bone Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bones of the Upper Limbs § The forearm has two bones § Ulna §

Bones of the Upper Limbs § The forearm has two bones § Ulna § Medial bone in anatomical position § Radius § Lateral bone in anatomical position Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bones of the Upper Limbs § The hand § Carpals—wrist § Metacarpals—palm § Phalanges—fingers

Bones of the Upper Limbs § The hand § Carpals—wrist § Metacarpals—palm § Phalanges—fingers Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Power. Point® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Skeletal System

Power. Point® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Skeletal System Lower Limbs 5 PART A Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bones of the Pelvic Girdle § Formed by two coxal (ossa coxae) bones §

Bones of the Pelvic Girdle § Formed by two coxal (ossa coxae) bones § Composed of three pairs of fused bones § Ilium § Ischium § Pubis Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bones of the Pelvic Girdle § The total weight of the upper body rests

Bones of the Pelvic Girdle § The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis § It protects several organs § Reproductive organs § Urinary bladder § Part of the large intestine Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Pelvis Figure 5. 24 a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing

The Pelvis Figure 5. 24 a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Pelvis: Right Coxal Bone Figure 5. 24 b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education,

The Pelvis: Right Coxal Bone Figure 5. 24 b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Gender Differences of the Pelvis § The female inlet is larger and more circular

Gender Differences of the Pelvis § The female inlet is larger and more circular § The female pelvis as a whole is shallower, and the bones are lighter and thinner § The female ilia flare more laterally § The female sacrum is shorter and less curved § The female ischial spines are shorter and farther apart; thus the outlet is larger § The female pubic arch is more rounded because the angle of the pubic arch is greater Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Gender Differences of the Pelvis Figure 5. 24 c Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education,

Gender Differences of the Pelvis Figure 5. 24 c Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bones of the Lower Limbs § The thigh has one bone § Femur §

Bones of the Lower Limbs § The thigh has one bone § Femur § The heaviest, strongest bone in the body Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bones of the Lower Limbs § The lower leg has two bones § Tibia

Bones of the Lower Limbs § The lower leg has two bones § Tibia § Shinbone § Larger and medially oriented § Fibula § Thin and sticklike Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Bones of the Lower Limbs § The foot § Tarsals § Two largest tarsals

Bones of the Lower Limbs § The foot § Tarsals § Two largest tarsals § Calcaneus (heelbone) § Talus § Metatarsals—sole § Phalanges—toes Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Power. Point® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Skeletal System:

Power. Point® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College The Skeletal System: Joints 5 PART A Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Joints § Articulations of bones § Functions of joints § Hold bones together §

Joints § Articulations of bones § Functions of joints § Hold bones together § Allow for mobility § Ways joints are classified § Functionally § Structurally Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Functional Classification of Joints § Synarthroses § Immovable joints § Amphiarthroses § Slightly moveable

Functional Classification of Joints § Synarthroses § Immovable joints § Amphiarthroses § Slightly moveable joints § Diarthroses § Freely moveable joints Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Structural Classification of Joints § Fibrous joints § Generally immovable § Cartilaginous joints §

Structural Classification of Joints § Fibrous joints § Generally immovable § Cartilaginous joints § Immovable or slightly moveable § Synovial joints § Freely moveable Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Summary of Joint Classes [Insert Table 5. 3 here] Table 5. 3 Copyright ©

Summary of Joint Classes [Insert Table 5. 3 here] Table 5. 3 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Fibrous Joints § Bones united by fibrous tissue § Example: § Sutures § Syndesmoses

Fibrous Joints § Bones united by fibrous tissue § Example: § Sutures § Syndesmoses § Allows more movement than sutures § Example: Distal end of tibia and fibula Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cartilaginous Joints § Bones connected by cartilage § Example: § Pubic symphysis § Intervertebral

Cartilaginous Joints § Bones connected by cartilage § Example: § Pubic symphysis § Intervertebral joints Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Synovial Joints § Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity § Synovial fluid

Synovial Joints § Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity § Synovial fluid is found in the joint cavity Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Features of Synovial Joints § Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones

Features of Synovial Joints § Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones § A fibrous articular capsule encloses joint surfaces § A joint cavity is filled with synovial fluid § Ligaments reinforce the joint Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Structures Associated with the Synovial Joint § Bursae—flattened fibrous sacs § Lined with synovial

Structures Associated with the Synovial Joint § Bursae—flattened fibrous sacs § Lined with synovial membranes § Filled with synovial fluid § Not actually part of the joint § Tendon sheath § Elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

The Synovial Joint Figure 5. 29 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing

The Synovial Joint Figure 5. 29 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Types of Synovial Joints Figure 5. 30 a–c Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Types of Synovial Joints Figure 5. 30 a–c Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Types of Synovial Joints Figure 5. 30 d–f Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Types of Synovial Joints Figure 5. 30 d–f Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Inflammatory Conditions Associated with Joints § Bursitis—inflammation of a bursa usually caused by a

Inflammatory Conditions Associated with Joints § Bursitis—inflammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow or friction § Tendonitis—inflammation of tendon sheaths § Arthritis—inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints § Over 100 different types § The most widespread crippling disease in the United States Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Clinical Forms of Arthritis § Osteoarthritis § Most common chronic arthritis § Probably related

Clinical Forms of Arthritis § Osteoarthritis § Most common chronic arthritis § Probably related to normal aging processes § Rheumatoid arthritis § An autoimmune disease—the immune system attacks the joints § Symptoms begin with bilateral inflammation of certain joints § Often leads to deformities Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Clinical Forms of Arthritis § Gouty arthritis § Inflammation of joints is caused by

Clinical Forms of Arthritis § Gouty arthritis § Inflammation of joints is caused by a deposition of uric acid crystals from the blood § Can usually be controlled with diet Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Developmental Aspects of the Skeletal System § At birth, the skull bones are incomplete

Developmental Aspects of the Skeletal System § At birth, the skull bones are incomplete § Bones are joined by fibrous membranes called fontanels § Fontanels are completely replaced with bone within two years after birth Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Ossification Centers in a 12 -week-old Fetus Figure 5. 32 Copyright © 2009 Pearson

Ossification Centers in a 12 -week-old Fetus Figure 5. 32 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life § Fetus § Long bones are formed of hyaline cartilage

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life § Fetus § Long bones are formed of hyaline cartilage § Flat bones begin as fibrous membranes § Flat and long bone models are converted to bone § Birth § Fontanels remain until around age 2 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life § Adolescence § Epiphyseal plates become ossified and long bone

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life § Adolescence § Epiphyseal plates become ossified and long bone growth ends § Size of cranium in relationship to body § 2 years old—skull is larger in proportion to the body compared to that of an adult § 8 or 9 years old—skull is near adult size and proportion § Between ages 6 and 11, the face grows out from the skull Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life Figure 5. 33 a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life Figure 5. 33 a Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life Figure 5. 33 b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life Figure 5. 33 b Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life § Osteoporosis § Bone-thinning disease afflicting § 50% of women

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life § Osteoporosis § Bone-thinning disease afflicting § 50% of women over age 65 § 20% of men over age 70 § Disease makes bones fragile and bones can easily fracture § Vertebral collapse results in kyphosis (also known as dowager’s hump) § Estrogen aids in health and normal density of a female skeleton Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life Figure 5. 34 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life Figure 5. 34 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life Figure 5. 35 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. ,

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life Figure 5. 35 Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. , publishing as Benjamin Cummings