- Slides: 21
Potential and Capacitance
Potential Difference (V) Ø Potential difference between two points is the work done to transfer a one coulomb of charge between the points. i. e V=W Q Ø Unit Volt V or J C-1 Ø Volt The p. d. between two points 1 volt if one joule of work is done bringing one coulomb of charge from one point to the other Ø Potential at a point is the p. d. between a point and the Earth, where the Earth is at zero potential
Measuring Potential Voltmeter Electroscope The spread of the leaves is a measure of the potential between the leaves and the case.
Two oppositely charged plates are 5 cm apart. The electric field strength between them is 2000 N/C. (i) What is the force on 1 C placed between the plates? (ii) Find the work done in bringing the charge from one plate to another. (iii) What is the potential difference between the plates.
The potential difference between two plates is 2000 V. An electron is released from one plate and moves to the other. What is its speed when is reaches the second plate. (e=1. 6 x 10 -19 C and m=9. 1 x 10 -31 Kg)
Potential is proportional to charge VαQ CV=Q C is capacitance
Capacitance (C) Ø Capacitance is the ratio of the charge on a conductor to its p. d. i. e. C = Q V Ø Unit Farad F or C V-1 ØCapacitor stores charge ØSymbol
The presence of a negative plate reduces the potential of the positive plate and then more charge can be stored on this plate. This effectively increases capacitance C. Q=charge V=potential
Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitor W = ½ CV 2 Ø Experiment to show that capacitors store energy. Connect an electrolytic capacitor to a d. c. supply. This charges the capacitor. Disconnect the capacitor from the power supply and connect to a bulb. The bulb lights showing that there is energy stored in a capacitor.
Conduction in Capacitors conduct AC. Capacitors do not conduct DC. AC The bulb stays lit. The bulb lights for a short while as charge builds up on the capacitor, then it goes out as capacitors do not conduct DC.
Factors affecting capacitance 1. Capacitance is proportional to area of overlap. 2. Capacitance is inversely proportional to distance between plates. 3. Capacitance is proportional to the permittivity of the dielectric ØParallel Plate Capacitor C = A d A = area of overlap of plates d = distance between plates = permittivity of dielectric (insulator between plates)
Experiment investigating the factors affecting capacitance. Apparatus: multimeter set to read capacitance, 2 metal plates Method: Connect the plates to the multimeter. Reduce the overlap area and note that the capacitance drops. Increase the distance between the plates and note that the capacitance decreases. Conclusion: Capacitance is proportional to area of overlap and inversely proportional to the distance between the plates.
Capacitors Uses of Capacitors Ø Tune radio stations (variable capacitor) Ø Smooth out variations in d. c. (Allow a. c. to flow but block d. c. ) Ø Camera flash
Potential Difference (V) Ø This can also be said to be the energy lost by 1 coulomb as it moves between 2 points in a circuit Note: W = VQ t t P = VI Divide both sides by t (time) (P = W and I = Q ) t t
Electromotive Force (e. m. f. ) Ø e. m. f. (E) is a voltage applied to a cct. Ø Unit Volt ØSources of potential/voltage/emf q. Simple Cell q. Primary Cell q. Secondary Cell q. Thermocouple q. Mains ØElectric cell is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy and is a source of e. m. f.
Simple Cell Ø Copper and zinc plates are electrodes (negative cathode e e and positive anode) Anode CathodeØ Copper sulphate with dilute Cu sulphuric acid is the Zn electrolyte + Ø This simple cell can’t be Zn recharged as the chemicals Cu 2+ Cu are used up as a current flows Zn 2+
Primary Cell Ø This type of cell can’t be recharged. Ø Also known as dry cells as the electrolyte tends to be a chemical paste.
Secondary Cell Ø This is a cell that can be recharged Ø Also known as an accumulator Ø Car battery is a lead-acid accumulator