- Slides: 54
Posture By: Dr. M. Abbas Jamil
Posture: � Posture is the position of your body parts in relation to each other at any given time. � Posture is the attitude assumed by the body either with support during muscular inactivity or by means of coordinated action of many muscles working together to maintain stability.
Types: � Inactive postures: � Attitude adopted for resting or sleeping. All essential muscular activity reduces to minimum and used for training general relaxation. � Active Postures: � Muscular activity is required. May be static and dynamic.
Static and Dynamic Posture: � In Static postures the body and its segments are aligned and maintained in certain positions like standing, kneeling, lying, and sitting. � Dynamic posture refers to postures in which the body or its segments are moving like walking, running, jumping, throwing and lifting.
Postural Mechanism: � Postural Control refers to maintain the stability of the body as a whole and body segments “against gravity” or “movement of different body segments”. � Control depends on the integrity of nervous system, musculoskeletal system and special senses.
Postural Reflex: � The postural reflexes help to maintain the body in upright and balanced position. They also provide adjustments necessary to maintain a stable posture during voluntary activity. � REFLEX ARC of postural reflexes is as follows: • Afferent pathways of reflex arc come from the eyes, the vestibular apparatus and the proprioceptors. • Integrating centers are formed by neuronal networks in brain stem and spinal cord. • Efferent pathways consist of alpha-motor neurons supplying the various skeletal muscles which form the effector organs.
� � Postural reflexes can be modified by coordinated activity : Spinal cord � Medulla � Midbrain � Cerebral cortex � Cerebellum
Components: 1. Muscles 2. Eyes 3. Ears 4. Joint Structure § Skin sensation also plays a part § Impulses from all these receptors are conveyed and coordinated in the central nervous system.
Muscles: � Muscle contractions are primarily responsible for keeping the body in the upright position in both static and dynamic posture. The muscles most involved are called antigravity muscles. � Anti gravity Muscles: � Any of the muscles involved in the stabilization of the joints or other body parts by opposing the effects of gravity.
� Muscles mainly extensors of knee, hip trunk and neck are called antigravity muscles that by their tone resist the constant pull of gravity in the maintenance of normal posture. � Other muscles, perhaps less involved, but also important in maintaining the upright position, are the trunk and neck flexors, hip abductors and adductors, and the ankle pronators and supinators.
Eyes: � Visual sensation records alteration in the body with regard to its surroundings and eyes form one of the receptors for the righting reflexes which enable the head and body to restore its erect position. � The righting reflex, also known as the Labyrinthine righting reflex, is a reflex that corrects the orientation of the body when it is taken out of its normal upright position. It is initiated by the vestibular system, which detects that the body is not erect and causes the head to move back into position as the rest of the body follows.
� They maintain head and neck alignment, bring your body into an upright position and adjusts other body parts.
� The vestibular system is composed of inner ear organs forming the "labyrinth“, the semicircular canals, the otoliths , and the cochlea. � Sensory information from the vestibular system allows the head to move back into position when disturbed as the rest of the body follows. The semicircular canals are arranged at angles to the horizontal plane of the head when it is in its normal vertical posture.
Ears and Joint structure: � Stimulation of the receptors of vestibular nerve results from the movement of fluid contained in the semi circular canals of internal ear. � In the weight bearing position approximation of the bones stimulates receptors in joint structures and initiates reflex reactions to maintain posture.
Pattern of Posture � � Good posture When the posture fulfills the purpose for which it is used with maximum efficiency and minimum effort. � � Varies from individual to individual Perfect balance of one body segment over another. � Minimum muscular effort. � Pleasing to someone’s eyes.
� Good posture � Factors responsible for good posture: � Stable Psychological Background � � Good Hygienic Conditions Opportunity for Plenty of natural free movement
� � Poor Posture A posture which is inefficient, fails to serve the purpose and in it unnecessary amount of muscle effort used. � Faulty alignment of body parts leading to additional muscle work. � Marked increase in curves of spine which are displeasing to eyes. � Reduces the efficiency of movement.
� � Poor posture Factors responsible for posture: � Mental attitude � Poor hygienic condition � General disability and Illness � Prolong fatigue � Local factors � Pain � Muscular weakness � Occupational stress � Sometimes there may be faulty idea of good posture
Postural Deviations � Too much arch in the lower back is called Lordosis, also called sway back. � Kyphosis occurs in the thoracic part of the spine by poor posture, rounded back.
� Everyone's spine has natural curves. These curves round our shoulders and make our lower back curve slightly inward. � But some people have spines that also curve from side to side. It’s called SCOLIOSIS. � On an X-ray, the spine of an individual with scoliosis looks more like an "S" or a "C" than a straight line.
Re-education of Posture � Principle � The cause of poor posture must be found out. � Co-operation of patient � Techniques of Re-education � General relaxation � Treatment of pain � Mobility � Muscle power
Avoid high heels
� Reading and Writing at desk
� Sitting in chair
� Driving cars
� Standing for long period (transfer wt. )
�POSTURAL EXERCISES AND BACK SUPPORT
Curl – Up (Crunch) v This exercise strengthens upper abdominal muscles: 1. Lie on back with knees bent and feet close to buttocks. 2. Hold hands and arms straight in front of you and curl your head and shoulders up only until shoulder blades leave the floor 3. Slowly roll back to the starting position Caution: Feet should not be held while doing a trunk curl. Complete up to 10 repetitions
Double Leg Lift (Table) v This exercise strengthens lower back and gluteus muscles 1. Lie facedown on a table or bench with a partner holding your upper body. If you have no partner, grasp under the edge of a table. 2. Lift legs until legs are even with the top of the table. 3. Lower to the beginning position. Repeat up to 10 repetitions. Caution: Do not lift any higher. You might lift one leg at a time until you are able to lift both legs at once.
Trunk Lift (Table) v This exercise helps strengthen your back muscles 1. Lie facedown on a table or bench with a partner holding your legs. Your upper body should hang over the edge. 2. Lift your upper body until it is even with the edge of the table. 3. Lower to the beginning position. Repeat up to 10 times. Caution: Do not lift any higher.
Reverse Curl v This exercise develops your lower abdominal muscles. 1. Lie on your back. Bend your knees, placing your feet flat on the floor. Place arms outside. 2. Lift knees to your chest, raising hips off the floor. 3. Return to the starting position. Caution: Do not lower your legs to the floor or hold your breath. Complete up to 10 repetitions.
Knee-to-Chest v This exercise helps correct or prevent lordosis and backaches. 1. Lie on your back. Band your right knee to your chest. 2. Grasp your thigh under the knee with your arms. Pull it down tight against your chest. Keep your left leg flat on the floor. 3. Return to the beginning position. Repeat with your left leg. 4. Pull both thighs to your chest and hag them. Repeat the exercise up to 10 times.
Arm and Leg Lift v This exercise helps prevent rounded shoulders, sunken chest, and rounded upper back. 1. Lie face down with arms stretched in front of you. 2. Raise right arm; then lower it. Raise left arm; then lower it. Raise both arms and lower them. 3. Raise right leg; then lower it. Raise left leg and then lower it. 4. Raise right arm and right leg; lower them. Repeat with left arm and left leg.