- Slides: 14
Political Socialization and Political Ideologies
Political Socialization • Many individuals identify themselves as either conservatives or liberals without understanding what these terms mean • This is inherently irrational • Where do these ideologies come from? – Similar to allegiance to a sports team
Where Do the Political Beliefs Come From? • Socializing agents – Family – School – Peer groups and associations – Media – Focusing events
One-Dimensional Model • Simple left-right scale, where left = liberal, and right = conservative Liberal (Left) <----- Moderate -----> Conservative (Right)
More Appropriate Model • Two-dimensional model – Social dimension – Economic dimension • No longer only two possible locations – Many different ideologies can be placed in a more nuanced model
World’s Smallest Political Quiz • Personal Issues – Military service should be voluntary (No Draft) – Government should not control radio, TV, the press or the Internet – Repeal regulations on sex for consenting adults – Drug laws do more harm than good. Repeal them – People should be free to come and go across borders; to live and work where they choose
World’s Smallest Political Quiz • Economic Issues – Businesses and farms should operate without govt. subsidies – People are better off with free trade than with tariffs – Minimum wage laws cause unemployment. Repeal them – End taxes. Pay for services with user fees – All foreign aid should be privately funded
What Roles Do Ideologies Play? • Structure policy preferences • Govern how we perceive the political world
Conservatism • Believes in a minimal role of government – Both in terms of social and economic issues • Believes in individual freedom and the protection of these freedoms at all costs • Believes in equal opportunity for all • Smaller national government & stronger state government • Liberty over equality?
Liberalism • Believes in a government with a large role – Both in terms of social and economic issues – This typically includes, but is not bound to, support of: income redistribution, social legislation • Results should be equal for all • Equality over liberty?
Libertarianism • Government involvement in social and economic aspects of life should be minimal – Economic and social self-governance • As long as actions do not harm others, they should be legal – Laws restricting behavior of individuals should be eliminated
Socialism • Belief that everyone should own and control the means of production. • Production to satisfy human needs, not, as under capitalism, for sale and profit • Socialism in America? – Expanded role of national government – Nationalization of certain industries – Nationalized welfare, health care, and redistribution of wealth
Communism • A social and economic system in which all (or nearly all) property is public, not private – Resources are shared by everyone • Complete government involvement and regulation of the economy – Redistribution of wealth is a key. The government owns, runs, and controls all business