- Slides: 35
Political Rights of African Americans
Reconstruction 1865 -1877
Reconstruction How is it possible for a country to come back together after such a colossal war?
Lincoln’s Plan Abraham Lincoln 10% Plan (leniency) Pardon Confederates 10% had to pledge allegiance to Union "With malice toward none, with charity for all” Lincoln
Andrew Johnson’s Plan Presidential Reconstruction Swear Allegiance Pay war debts Abolish Slavery (Ratify 13 th Amendment) Failures Never address African American Rights
Civil Rights Act of 1866 Gave African Americans citizenship and forbade states from passing discriminatory laws (Black Codes) Black Codes Could not carry weapons Serving on Juries Testify Against Whites
Congressional Reconstruction 14 th Amendments – Gave African Americans protection under the Constitution. Reconstruction Act of 1867 Did not recognize state governments formed under the Lincoln and Johnson plans South divided into 5 and ran by military New state constitutions needed to be made.
Johnson and Impeachment Johnson vetoes Civil Rights Act Johnson Impeached Did not follow Reconstruction Act Removed Military officers who enforced the act He was Impeached Fell one vote short of being removed from office.
Ulysses S. Grant’s Plan Work to get the last states readmitted African American Rights Every human being, of whatever origin, of whatever station, deserves respect. We must each respect others even as we respect ourselves Ulysses S. Grant
Civil War Amendments 13 th- Neither slaver nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted shall exist within the United States. 14 th – All persons born or naturalized in the United States are entitled to equal protection of the law, and no state could deprive any person of life, liberty , or property without due process. 15 th – No one can be kept from voting because of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude. ”
African American Rights
African American Rights Jim Crow Poll Tax (annual tax to be paid to qualify to vote) Literacy Test Grandfather Clause Helped whites who failed the literacy test Said if your failed the literacy test you could still vote if you father or grandfather voted prior to Jan. 1, 1867 Ruled out all African Americans Schools
African American Rights Plessy V. Ferguson Law case was brought claiming Jim Crow Laws are unconstitutional Supreme Court claimed separation of races in public was legal (Separate but Equal) Separate but equal stood for almost 60 years.
Activism Economics Booker T. Washington Believed racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society W. E. B. Du Bois Believed blacks should seek a liberal arts education so that the African-American community would have well-educated leaders. NAACP – National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Assignment Directions: Answer the following questions on 2 of the pictures below. You can gain 2 points extra credit for each picture beyond the two that are required What aspect of the picture sticks out the most? Describe what you see in the picture. What emotions do you believe the people are feeling in the picture or feel by looking at the sign? What specific information about Jim Crow Laws can you see in the phototgraph?
Political Groups Populism
Causes of Populism Economic Problems Sharecropping Landowners split their land up and gave each worker a few acres At harvest time workers gave a portion to the landowner Sharecroppers never seemed to get out of debt with the landowners though
More Causes Money Value Paper money could not be exchanged for gold or silver Paper money was retired for this reason The value of a dollar was increased Caused Farmers to distress when paying of loans because paper money was hard to come by.
Even More Causes Railroads Charged high prices to move grain Many had to mortgage their farms to pay these prices. Many did not make up enough at harvest to pay the loans on their homes.
Populism Politics Platform (Beliefs) Movement of the people (farmers and labors) Reform to lift the burden of debt Panic of 1893 Farmers couldn’t pay loans Railroads went bankrupt Gold Supply dwindled so people started trading gold for paper money. This spread to Wall Street where stocks fell
Populism Politics Silver and Gold Debate broke out on what metal would be Americas standard for the monetary system Use both Gold and Silver Use just Gold Paper money was regarded as worthless
Populism Politics Election of 1896 Gold and Silver debate was main topic Republicans (Gold) supported William Mc. Kinley Democrats (Silver and Gold) supported William Jennings Bryan Mc. Kinley Won Bryan could not compete with Mc. Kinley’s Money Mc. Kinley win ended Populism
Gold Bugs and Silverites Farmers and Laborers Bimetallism More money in circulation (Loans easier to pay off) Gold Bugs Bankers and Businessmen Wanted Gold the Standard with less money in circulation Loans could be repaid in stable money