- Slides: 31
Poetry Terms English I G/T 2011 -2012
Poetry l A highly charged form of literature in which every word is packed with meaning. It has a musical quality that may be achieved through meter, rhyme, repetition, and sound devices.
Form l A poem’s structure – the way the words are arranged on the page
Two Primary Poetic Forms Traditional Characteristics Follows fixed rules such as a specified number of lines Has a regular pattern of rhyme and rhythm Organic Characteristics Doesn’t follow established rules form. Doesn’t have a regular pattern of rhythm and may not rhyme at all May use unconventional spelling, grammar, and punctuation Forms epic, ode, ballad, sonnet, limerick, free verse, concrete poetry haiku, villanelle
Lines & Stanzas Line Each individual line of a poem; the length of lines, where they break, and how they are punctuated all contribute to a poem’s rhythm and meaning. Stanza A grouping of consecutive in a poem that form a single unit; analogous to a paragraph in prose
Line Format End-Stopped Lines l Lines in which both the grammatical structure and the sense reach completion at the end of the line. Ex. He was my friend, faithful and just to me; / But Brutus says he was ambitious, / And Brutus is an honorable man. Run-On Lines The carrying over of grammatical structure from one line to the next. Enjambment l The continuation of the sense and grammatical construction of a line on to the next line. Ex. I will not eat green eggs / And ham, I will not eat them Sam I Am.
Two of the Main Types of Poetry Narrative Poem l Tells a story in verse Ex. Odyssey (an epic) Lyric Poem A brief poem in which the writer expresses feelings of a single speaker, creating a single effect on the reader. Lyrics are notable for their musical qualities, achieved through rhyme and rhythm.
Rhythm and Meter Rhythm A pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry. Meter A regular pattern of rhythm Foot The unit of measuring rhythm.
Feet Iamb l A metrical foot that contains one unstressed followed by one stressed syllable Ex. But soft!; alone Trochee A metrical foot that contains one stressed syllable followed by one unstressed syllable Ex. absent
Meter Trimeter Three feet per line Tetrameter Four feet per line Pentameter Five feet per line
Iambic Pentameter l A line of poetry that consists of five iambs/feet Ex. But soft! What light through yonder window breaks?
Scansion l The charting of meter, in which stressed syllables are marked with a ‘ and unstressed syllables with a ᵕ.
Rhyme l The occurrence of similar or identical sounds at the end of two or more words. Ex. suite, heat, and complete
Types of Rhyme Internal Rhyme that occurs within a single line of poetry Ex. It dropped so low – in my Regard - / I heard it hit the Ground
Types of Rhyme Slant Rhyme l Approximate rhyme; occurs when authors attempt to rhyme words that simply do not rhyme exactly Ex. What immortal hand or eye / Could frame thy fearful symmetry?
Types of Rhyme End Rhyme l Rhyme that occurs at the ends of lines of poetry Ex. And be one traveler, long I stood / And looked down one as far as I could.
Rhyme Scheme l A pattern of end rhymes in a poem. A rhyme scheme is noted by assigning a letter of the alphabet, beginning with a, to each line. Lines that rhyme are given the same letter. Ex. Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, a And sorry I could not travel both b And be one traveler, long I stood a And looked down one as far as I could a To where it bent in the undergrowth b
Repetition l A sound, word, phrase, or line that is repeated for emphasis and unity. Ex. back off from this poem / it has drawn in yr feet / back off from this poem
Refrain l Repeated word, phrase, line, or group of lines.
Alliteration l Repetition of consonant sounds at the beginnings of words Ex. Which circle slowly with a silken swish
Assonance l Repetition of similar vowel sounds in words that don’t end with the same consonant. Ex. young love; deep-eyed deer
Consonance l Repetition of similar consonant sounds within and at the ends of words Ex. The archetypal arachnid attacked the critical acrobat’s katydid.
Anaphora l The same expression (word or words) is repeated at the beginning of two or more lines, clauses, or sentences. Ex. I have been one acquainted with the night / I have outwalked the farthest city light.
Cacophony l Rough, harsh-sounding, discordant sounds Ex. I’ll look to like if looking liking move.
Euphony Grouping together or harmonic, pleasing sounds (opposite of cacophony) Ex. Hear all, all see, / And like her most whose merit most shall be; / Which, on more view of many, mine, being one, ‘ May stand in number, though in reck’ning none. l
Onomatopoeia l Words that sound like their meaning Ex. swoosh, zip, click, zoom, pop, crackle