- Slides: 55
POETRY Ø A type of literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form (usually using lines and stanzas)
POINT OF VIEW IN POETRY POET l SPEAKER The poet is the author l The speaker of the poem is the “narrator” of the poem.
POETRY FORM - the appearance of the words on the page l LINE - a group of words together on one line of the poem l l STANZA - a group of lines arranged together A word is dead When it is said, Some say. I say it just Begins to live That day.
KINDS OF STANZAS Couplet = Triplet (Tercet) = Quatrain = Quintet = Sestet (Sextet) = Septet = Octave = a two line stanza a three line stanza a four line stanza a five line stanza a six line stanza a seven line stanza an eight line stanza
RHYTHM l The beat created by the sounds of the words in a poem l Rhythm can be created by meter, rhyme, alliteration and refrain.
METER Ø A pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. Meter occurs when the stressed and unstressed syllables of the words in a poem are arranged in a repeating pattern. Ø When poets write in meter, they count out the number of stressed (strong) syllables and unstressed (weak) syllables for each line. They they repeat the pattern throughout the poem. Ø
METER cont. FOOT - unit of meter. l TYPES OF FEET l A foot can have two The types of feet are or three syllables. determined by the arrangement of l Usually consists of stressed and one unstressed syllables. or more unstressed syllables. (cont. ) l
METER cont. TYPES OF FEET (cont. ) Iambic - unstressed, stressed Trochaic - stressed, unstressed Anapestic - unstressed, stressed Dactylic - stressed, unstressed, unstressed
METER cont. Kinds of Metrical Lines l l l l monometer dimeter trimeter tetrameter pentameter hexameter heptameter octometer = = = one foot on a line two feet on a line three feet on a line = four feet on a line five feet on a line = six feet on a line seven feet on a line = eight feet on a line
FREE VERSE POETRY Unlike metered l Free verse poetry is poetry, free verse very conversational - poetry does NOT have sounds like someone any repeating talking with you. patterns of stressed and unstressed l A more modern type syllables. of poetry. l Does NOT have rhyme. l
BLANK VERSE POETRY from Julius Ceasar l Written in lines of iambic pentameter, but does NOT use end rhyme. Cowards die many times before their deaths; The valiant never taste of death but once. Of all the wonders that I yet have heard, It seems to me most strange that men should fear; Seeing that death, a necessary end, Will come when it will come.
RHYME l l Words sound alike because they share the same ending vowel and consonant sounds. (A word always rhymes with itself. ) LAMP STAMP á Share the short “a” vowel sound á Share the combined “mp” consonant sound
END RHYME l A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line Hector the Collector Collected bits of string. Collected dolls with broken heads And rusty bells that would not ring.
INTERNAL RHYME l A word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line. Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary. From “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe
NEAR RHYME l a. k. a imperfect rhyme, close rhyme l The words share EITHER the same vowel or consonant sound BUT NOT BOTH ROSE LOSE á Different vowel sounds (long “o” and “oo” sound) á Share the same consonant sound
RHYME SCHEME l A rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usually end rhyme, but not always). l Use the letters of the alphabet to represent sounds to be able to visually “see” the pattern. (See next slide for an example. )
SAMPLE RHYME SCHEME The Germ by Ogden Nash A mighty creature is the germ, Though smaller than the pachyderm. His customary dwelling place Is deep within the human race. His childish pride he often pleases By giving people strange diseases. Do you, my poppet, feel infirm? You probably contain a germ. a a b b c c a a
ONOMATOPOEIA l Words that imitate the sound they are naming BUZZ l OR sounds that imitate another sound “The silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of each purple curtain. . . ”
ALLITERATION l Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of words If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick?
CONSONANCE l Similar to alliteration EXCEPT. . . l The repeated consonant sounds can be anywhere in the words “silken, sad, uncertain, rustling. . “
ASSONANCE l Repeated VOWEL sounds in a line or lines of poetry. (Often creates near rhyme. ) Lake Fate Base Fade (All share the long “a” sound. )
ASSONANCE cont. Examples of ASSONANCE: “Slow the low gradual moan came in the snowing. ” - John Masefield “Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep. ” - William Shakespeare
REFRAIN l A sound, word, phrase or line repeated regularly in a poem. “Quoth the raven, ‘Nevermore. ’”
SOME TYPES OF POETRY WE WILL BE STUDYING
LYRIC l A short poem l Usually written in first person point of view l Expresses an emotion or an idea or describes a scene l Do not tell a story and are often musical l (Many of the poems we read will be lyrics. )
HAIKU A Japanese poem written in three lines Five Syllables Seven Syllables Five Syllables An old silent pond. . . A frog jumps into the pond. Splash! Silence again.
CINQUAIN A five line poem containing 22 syllables Two Syllables Four Syllables Six Syllables Eight Syllables Two Syllables How frail Above the bulk Of crashing water hangs Autumnal, evanescent, wan The moon.
SHAKESPEAREAN SONNET A fourteen line poem with a specific rhyme scheme. Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? Thou art more lovely and more temperate. Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, The poem is written in three quatrains And summer’s lease hath all too short a date. and ends with a couplet. Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimmed; The rhyme scheme is And every fair from fair sometimes declines, By chance or nature’s changing course abab cdcd efef gg untrimmed. But thy eternal summer shall not fade Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st; Nor shall Death brag thou wanderest in his shade, When in eternal lines to time thou grow’st So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
NARRATIVE POEMS A poem that tells a story. l Generally longer than the lyric styles of poetry b/c the poet needs to establish characters and a plot. l Examples of Narrative Poems “The Raven” “The Highwayman” “Casey at the Bat” “The Walrus and the Carpenter”
CONCRETE POEMS (Pattern Poems l In concrete poems, the words are arranged to create a picture that relates to the content of the poem. Poetry Is like Flames, Which are Swift and elusive Dodging realization Sparks, like words on the Paper, leap and dance in the Flickering firelight. The fiery Tongues, formless and shifting Shapes, tease the imiagination. Yet for those who see, Through their mind’s Eye, they burn Up the page.
SIMILE l A comparison of two things using “like, as than, ” or “resembles. ” l “She is as beautiful as a sunrise. ”
METAPHOR l A direct comparison of two unlike things l “All the world’s a stage, and we are merely players. ” - William Shakespeare
EXTENDED METAPHOR l A metaphor that goes several lines or possible the entire length of a work.
IMPLIED METAPHOR l The comparison is hinted at but not clearly stated. l “The poison sacs of the town began to manufacture venom, and the town swelled and puffed with the pressure of it. ” - from The Pearl - by John Steinbeck
Hyperbole l Exaggeration often used for emphasis.
Litotes l Understatement - basically the opposite of hyperbole. Often it is ironic. l Ex. Calling a slow moving person “Speedy”
Idiom l An expression where the literal meaning of the words is not the meaning of the expression. It means something other than what it actually says. l Ex. It’s raining cats and dogs.
PERSONIFICATION l An animal given human-like qualities or an object given lifelike qualities. from “Ninki” by Shirley Jackson “Ninki was by this time irritated beyond belief by the general air of incompetence exhibited in the kitchen, and she went into the living room and got Shax, who is extraordinarily lazy and never catches his own chipmunks, but who is, at least, a cat, and preferable, Ninki saw clearly, to a man with a gun.
OTHER POETIC DEVICES
SYMBOLISM l When a person, place, thing, or event that has meaning in itself also represents, or stands for, something else. = Innocence = America = Peace
Allusion comes from the verb “allude” which means “to refer to” l An allusion is a reference to something famous. l A tunnel walled and overlaid With dazzling crystal: we had read Of rare Aladdin’s wondrous cave, And to our own his name we gave. From “Snowbound” John Greenleaf Whittier
IMAGERY l Language that appeals to the senses. l Most images are visual, but they can also appeal to the senses of sound, touch, taste, or smell. then with cracked hands that ached from labor in the weekday weather. . . from “Those Winter Sundays”
Parody- is the imitation of the style of another work, writer or genre, which relies on deliberate exaggeration to achieve comic or satirical effect l l l A School Day Once upon a schoolday rotten Came some bullies and they were plot'n To mop my head across the bathroom floor A mop mopping across the bathroom floor Only this and nothing more When all of a sudden there came a rapping A tap tapping on the bathroom door Only my head and nothing more I started to scream to show my displeasure but they wanted to open my head like some kind of treasure and spill the contents across the bathroom floor. Only this and nothing more Oh won't these bullies please let me be I promise I'll give them all of my money and after they wiped me across the bathroom floor they took this and nothing more. So they just quit the beating right out of the blue I guess it was because school's out it's five after two but they dismissed it as if they were now bored only this and nothing more l This is a direct exaggeration of Edgar Alan Poe’s “The Raven” poem.
Ballad-poems that tell a story l The Gothic Ballad I walk carelessly down the dark road My heavy black boots constantly clicking Clicking on the cold cement My long black and velvet Trench coat Billowing in the slight breeze My Chest slightly rising under my tight corset My chains on my pants jingling together As I walk down this Moon lit road Staring up at the midnight moon This is the ballad The ballad of the lost Of the silent warriors Of the people you pass by and call freaks Of the people Who will save your soul For our souls are pure Our souls sing this ballad The ballad of the night The ballad of the pure hearts
Limerick l LIMERICKS are l Ex: There once was an poems with five lines old man from Peru with a special beat His poor llamas came and rhyming pattern: down with the flu Lines 1, 2 and 5 have In the valley he 9 beats and the last passed words rhyme. Lines 3 All the people who and 4 have 6 beats gasped and rhyme with each At the beast that was other. uttering "moo"
Ode l "Ode" comes from the Greek aeidein, meaning to sing or chant, and belongs to the long and varied tradition of lyric poetry l Ex: Ode to Life and Death To breathe To laugh To tear To cry Mother’s kisses And father’s hugs Sisters’ talks and Brother’s cries Day and night For fourteen years I remember when I was down I said to myself and made me happy Ode to water, ode to food Ode to me, and ode to you Most of all, Ode to life, and ode to death. Life. Live it. Love it. Enjoy it while you can. Death. Stop it. Look back. Regret it you know you can. TICK TOCK. Time is ticking, hurry up and make your move I did what I had to do Now…IT’S YOUR TURN! !
Elegy l A poem composed in elegiac couplets. l l l A poem or song composed especially as a lament for a deceased person. Something resembling such a poem or song. Music. A composition that is melancholy or pensive in tone. l The poem “Light Breaks Where No Sun Shines” is an inspiring poem. It talks about how even though some things are not how you would like them to be and it seems like some things can't get better, they will always turn out to be how they were meant to be. "If God brings you to it, he will bring you through it. " -Anonymous l Light Breaks Where No Sun Shines l Dylan Thomas l Light breaks where no sun shines; Where no sea runs, the waters of the heart Push in their tides; And, broken ghosts with glowworms in their heads, The things of light File through the flesh where no flesh decks the bones. l
Pastoral Poem l A Pastoral Poetry Type is a poem that depicts rural life in a peaceful, idealized way for example of shepherds or country life. . l l l l The Passionate Shepard To His Love. . COME live with me and be my Love, And we will all the pleasures prove That hills and valleys, dale and field, And all the craggy mountains yield. . There will we sit upon the rocks And see the shepherds feed their flocks, By shallow rivers, to whose falls Melodious birds sing madrigals. . There will I make thee beds of roses And a thousand fragrant posies, A cap of flowers, and a kirtle Embroider'd all with leaves of myrtle.
Epic Poem l Defn: long and highly stylized narrative poem celebrating the heroic achievements of its hero. Homer's Iliad and Odyssey are usually regarded as the first important epic poems and are considered to define the form. l Examples: The most important epic poem written in English is "Paradise Lost" by John Milton, Odyssey and Iliad by Homer.
Diamante l l The Diamante Poem is arranged In a diamond pattern using seven lines in the following manner: l l l l 1. LINE 1 one word subject (noun) 2. LINE 2 two adjectives describing LINE 1 noun 3. LINE 3 three participles ending in ing or -ed to decribe LINE I noun 4. LINE 7 one word growing out of or opposite to LINE 1 noun (another noun) 5. LINE 6 two adjectives describing LINE 7 noun 6. LINE 5 three participles ending in ing or -ed to describe LINE 7 noun 7. LINE 4 four words - two related to the noun in LINE 1 and two related to the noun in LINE 7; they be arranged concurrently or alternately, as the originator of the poem wishes.
Tanka l Tanka poems are short, lyrical poetry structured in 31 syllables arranged in groups of 5, 7, 5, 7 and 7, syllables, in a two-part form with the first part in 5, 7, 5, and the second part in 7 and 7 Beautiful mountains Rivers with cold, cold water. White cold snow on rocks Trees over the place with frost White sparkly snow everywhere.
Dialogue l Purpose: Dialogue poems address controversy and differing opinions. These poems can express conflict between people in opposing situations l (See teacher example)