- Slides: 49
POETRY Ø A type of literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form (usually using lines and stanzas)
POINT OF VIEW IN POETRY POET 4 The poet is the author of the poem. SPEAKER 4 The speaker of the poem is the “narrator” of the poem.
POETRY FORM 4 FORM - the appearance of the words on the page 4 LINE - a group of words together on one line of the poem 4 STANZA - a group of lines arranged together A word is dead When it is said, Some say. I say it just Begins to live That day.
KINDS OF STANZAS Couplet Triplet (Tercet) Quatrain Quintet Sestet (Sextet) Septet Octave = = = = a two line stanza a three line stanza a four line stanza a five line stanza a six line stanza a seven line stanza an eight line stanza
RHYTHM 4 The beat created by the sounds of the words in a poem 4 Rhythm can be created by meter, rhyme, alliteration and refrain.
METER Ø A pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. Ø Meter occurs when the stressed and unstressed syllables of the words in a poem are arranged in a repeating pattern. Ø When poets write in meter, they count out the number of stressed (strong) syllables and unstressed (weak) syllables for each line. They they repeat the pattern throughout the poem.
METER cont. 4 FOOT - unit of meter. 4 A foot can have two or three syllables. 4 Usually consists of one stressed and one or more unstressed syllables. 4 TYPES OF FEET The types of feet are determined by the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables. (cont. )
FREE VERSE POETRY 4 Unlike metered poetry, 4 Free verse poetry is free verse poetry does very conversational NOT have any sounds like someone repeating patterns of talking with you. stressed and unstressed syllables. 4 A more modern type 4 Does NOT have rhyme. of poetry.
RHYME 4 Words sound alike because they share the same ending vowel and consonant sounds. 4 (A word always rhymes with itself. ) LAMP STAMP á Share the short “a” vowel sound á Share the combined “mp” consonant sound
END RHYME 4 A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line Hector the Collector Collected bits of string. Collected dolls with broken heads And rusty bells that would not ring.
INTERNAL RHYME 4 A word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line. Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary. From “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe
RHYME SCHEME 4 A rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usually end rhyme, but not always). 4 Use the letters of the alphabet to represent sounds to be able to visually “see” the pattern. (See next slide for an example. )
SAMPLE RHYME SCHEME The Germ by Ogden Nash A mighty creature is the germ, Though smaller than the pachyderm. His customary dwelling place Is deep within the human race. His childish pride he often pleases By giving people strange diseases. Do you, my poppet, feel infirm? You probably contain a germ. a a b b c c a a
ONOMATOPOEIA 4 Words that imitate the sound they are naming BUZZ 4 OR sounds that imitate another sound “The silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of each purple curtain. . . ”
ALLITERATION 4 Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of words If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick?
CONSONANCE 4 Similar to alliteration EXCEPT. . . 4 The repeated consonant sounds can be anywhere in the words “silken, sad, uncertain, rustling. . “
ASSONANCE 4 Repeated VOWEL sounds in a line or lines of poetry. (Often creates near rhyme. ) Lake Fate Base Fade (All share the long “a” sound. )
ASSONANCE cont. Examples of ASSONANCE: “Slow the low gradual moan came in the snowing. ” - John Masefield “Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep. ” - William Shakespeare
REFRAIN 4 A sound, word, phrase or line repeated regularly in a poem. “Quoth the raven, ‘Nevermore. ’”
SOME TYPES OF POETRY WE WILL BE STUDYING
Couplet 4 A couplet is a poem, or stanza in a poem, written in two lines. 4 Usually rhymes. The Jellyfish Who wants my jellyfish? I’m not sellyfish! By Ogden Nash
Tercet 4 A tercet is a Winter Moon poem, or stanza, How thin and sharp is the moon tonight! How thin and sharp and ghostly white written in three Is the slim curved crook of the moon tonight! lines. By Langston Hughes 4 Usually rhymes. 4 Lines 1 and 2 can rhyme; lines 1 and 3 can rhyme; sometimes all 3 lines rhyme.
Quatrain n n A quatrain is a poem, or stanza, written in four lines. The quatrain is the most common form of stanza used in poetry. Usually rhymes. Can be written in variety of rhyming patterns. This is what I usually refer to as a “traditional” poem. The Lizard The lizard is a timid thing That cannot dance or fly or sings He hunts for bugs beneath the floor And longs to be a dinosaur. By John Gardner
Traditional Cinquain 4 A cinquain is a poem written in five lines that do not rhyme. 4 Traditional cinquain has five lines containing 22 syllables in the following pattern: Line 1 – 2 syllables Line 2 – 4 syllables Line 3 – 6 syllables Line 4 – 8 syllables Line 5 – 2 syllables Oh, cat are you grinning curled in the window seat as sun warms you this December morning? By Paul B. Janezco
Word-Count Cinquain 4 Word-count cinquain for younger students uses the following pattern: Line 1: One word (title) Line 2: Two words (describe the title) Line 3: Three words (describe an action) Line 4: Four words (describe a feeling) Line 5: One word (another word for title) Owl Swift, ferocious Watches for food Soaring through the night Hunter
Diamante 4 A diamante is a seven- line poem written in the shape of a diamond. 4 Does not rhyme. 4 Follows pattern. 4 Can use synonyms or antonyms. Diamante Pattern Line 1 – Your topic (noun) Line 2 – Two adjectives about Line 3 – Three “ing” words about Line 4 – Four nouns or short phrase linking topic (or topics) Line 5 – Three “ing” words about Line 5 – Two adjectives about Line 7 – Your ending topic (noun)
Synonym Diamante Monsters Creepy, sinister, Hiding, lurking, stalking, Vampires, mummies werewolves and more – Chasing, pouncing eating, Hungry, scary, Creatures
Antonym Diamante Day Bright, sunny, Laughing, playing, doing, Up in the east, down in the west – Talking, resting, sleeping, Quiet, dark, Night
HAIKU A haiku is a An old silent pond. . . Japanese poem with 3 A frog jumps into the pond. lines of 5, 7, and 5 Splash! Silence again. syllables. (Total of by Gaki 17 syllables. ) 4 Does not rhyme. 4 Is about an aspect of nature or the seasons. 4
Senryu 4 A senryu follows same First day, new school year, pattern as haiku. 4 Written in 3 unrhymed lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables, with total of 17 syllables. 4 Is about human nature, rather than natural world. backpack harbors a fossil… last June’s cheese sandwich. By Cristine O’Connell George
CONCRETE POEMS 4 A concrete poem (also called shape poem) is written in the shape of its subject. 4 The way the words are arranged is as important what they mean. 4 Does not have to rhyme 4
Free Verse 4 A free verse poem does not use rhyme or patterns. 4 Can vary freely in length of lines, stanzas, and subject. Revenge When I find out who took the last cooky out of the jar and left me a bunch of stale old messy crumbs, I'm going to take me a handful and crumb up someone's bed. By Myra Cohn Livingston
Acrostic 4 In an acrostic poem the first letter of each line, read down the page, spells the subject of the poem. 4 Type of free verse poem. 4 Does not usually rhyme. Loose brown parachute Escaping And Floating on puffs of air. by Paul Paolilli
Limerick 4 A limerick is a funny poem of 5 lines. 4 Lines 1, 2 & 5 rhyme. 4 Lines 3 & 4 are shorter and rhyme. 4 Line 5 refers to line 1. 4 Limericks are a kind of nonsense poem. There Seems to Be a Problem I really don’t know about Jim. When he comes to our farm for a swim, The fish as a rule, jump out of the pool. Is there something the matter with him? By John Ciardi
SIMILE 4 A comparison of two things using “like, as than, ” or “resembles. ” 4 “She is as beautiful as a sunrise. ”
METAPHOR 4 A direct comparison of two unlike things 4 “All the world’s a stage, and we are merely players. ” - William Shakespeare
EXTENDED METAPHOR 4 A metaphor that goes several lines or possible the entire length of a work.
IMPLIED METAPHOR 4 The comparison is hinted at but not clearly stated. 4 “The poison sacs of the town began to manufacture venom, and the town swelled and puffed with the pressure of it. ” - from The Pearl - by John Steinbeck
Hyperbole 4 Exaggeration often used for emphasis.
Litotes 4 Understatement - basically the opposite of hyperbole. Often it is ironic. 4 Ex. Calling a slow moving person “Speedy”
Idiom 4 An expression where the literal meaning of the words is not the meaning of the expression. It means something other than what it actually says. 4 Ex. It’s raining cats and dogs.
PERSONIFICATION 4 An animal given humanlike qualities or an object given life-like qualities. from “Ninki” by Shirley Jackson “Ninki was by this time irritated beyond belief by the general air of incompetence exhibited in the kitchen, and she went into the living room and got Shax, who is extraordinarily lazy and never catches his own chipmunks, but who is, at least, a cat, and preferable, Ninki saw clearly, to a man with a gun.
OTHER POETIC DEVICES
SYMBOLISM 4 When a person, place, thing, or event that has meaning in itself also represents, or stands for, something else. = Innocence = America = Peace
Allusion 4 Allusion comes from the verb “allude” which means “to refer to” 4 An allusion is a reference to something famous. A tunnel walled and overlaid With dazzling crystal: we had read Of rare Aladdin’s wondrous cave, And to our own his name we gave. From “Snowbound” John Greenleaf Whittier
IMAGERY 4 Language that appeals to the senses. 4 Most images are visual, but they can also appeal to the senses of sound, touch, taste, or smell. then with cracked hands that ached from labor in the weekday weather. . . from “Those Winter Sundays”