- Slides: 48
Poetry English 9
What is Poetry? • literature that is written in meter/verse • something that follows a particular flow of rhythm and meter • attempts to take rich, deep thoughts and “pack” them into a few words
Basic Terms of Poetry
Denotation • The dictionary definition of a word
Connotation • The implied or suggested meaning connected with a word.
Literal Meaning • Limited to the simplest, ordinary, most obvious meaning
Figurative Meaning • Associative or connotative meaning; representational
Meter • Measured pattern of rhythmic accents in a line of verse
Rhyme • Correspondence of terminal sounds of words or of lines of verse.
Rhyme • There are three main types of end-rhymes: • 1. True rhyme occurs exactly on one stressed syllable EX. car, far • 2. Two syllable rhyme uses words of more than one syllable and occurs when the accented syllable rhymes EX. buckle, knuckle • 3. Off-rhyme or Slant Rhyme occurs when words sound very similar but do not correspond in sound exactly EX. down, noon
Figurative Language of Poetry
Hyperbole • Exaggeration for emphasis (the opposite of understatement). • Example: “I’m so hungry I could eat a horse. ”
Metaphor • Something is something else. • Example: “[Love] is an ever fixed mark, / that looks on tempests and is never shaken. ”
Oxymoron • A combination of two words that appear to contradict each other. • Example: bittersweet/ army intelligence
Paradox • A situation or phrase that appears to be contradictory but which contains a truth worth considering. • Example: “In order to preserve peace, we must prepare for war. ”
Personification • Giving inanimate objects or abstract concepts living qualities. • Example: “Time let me play/ and be golden in the mercy of his means. ” “The trash can tossed its guts on the floor. ”
Simile • Comparison between to essentially unlike things using words such as “like, ” “as, ” or “as though. ” • Example: “My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun. ”
Irony • A contradiction of expectation between what is said and what is meant (verbal irony), or what is expected in a particular circumstance or behavior (situational), or when a character speaks in ignorance of a situation known to the audience or other characters (dramatic). • Example: “Time held me green and dying Though I sang in my chains like the sea. ”
Imagery • Word or sequence of words representing a sensory experience (Visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and gustatory). • Example: “bells knelling classes to a close” auditory
Symbol • An object or action that stands for something beyond itself. • Example: White = innocence, purity, hope
Alliteration • The repetition of consonant sounds, particularly at the beginning of words • Example: “…like a wanderer white. ”
Assonance • The repetition of similar vowel sounds. • Example: “I rose and told him of my woe. ”
Onomatopoeia • The use of words to imitate the sounds they describe. • Example: Crack or whip
Allusion • A reference to the person, event, or work outside the poem or literary piece. • Example: “Shining, it was Adam and maiden. ”
Form of Poetry
Open • Poetic form free from regularity and consistency in elements such as rhyme, line length, and metrical form.
Closed • Poetic form subject to a fixed structure and pattern.
Stanza • Unit of a poem often repeated in the same form throughout a poem; a unit of poetic lines (“verse paragraph”)
Blank Verse • Unrhymed iambic pentameter.
Free Verse • Lines with no prescribed pattern or structure.
Couplet • A pair of lines, usually rhymed
Quatrain • Four line stanza or grouping of verse
Sonnet • Fourteen line poem in iambic pentameter with a prescribed rhyme scheme; its subject is traditionally that of love.
English (Shakespearean) Sonnet • A sonnet probably made popular by Shakespeare with the following rhyme scheme: abab cdcd efef gg
METER Measured pattern of rhythmic accents in a line of verse
Stress • Greater amount of force used to pronounce one syllable over another.
Foot • A group of 2 or 3 syllables forming the basic unit of poetic rhythm
Rising meter • Meter containing metrical feet that move from the unstressed to stressed syllables.
Falling Meter • Meter containing metrical feet that move from stressed to unstressed syllables
Iambic (iamb) • A metrical foot containing two syllables -- the first is unstressed, while the second is stressed
Iambic Pentameter • A traditional form of rising meter consisting of lines containing five iambic feet (and, thus, ten syllables)
Other Important Pieces • Theme - what the poem is all about • theme of the poem is the central idea that the poet wants to convey • it can be a story, or a thought, or a description of something or someone • Mood—the predominant emotion, attitude, tone, or atmosphere of a piece of literature
Strategies for Reading Poetry • Preview the poem—notice the poem’s form: its shape, length, title (why did the poet choose that particular title? ) length of its lines, and whether or not it has stanzas. • Visualize the images—in your mind’s eye, picture the images and comparisons the poem makes. Do the images remind you of feelings or experiences you have had? • Try to figure out theme/main idea—ask yourself, “What’s the point of this poem? What message is the poet trying to send or help me create? Why did the poet write this poem in the first place? ”
Strategies for Reading Poetry • READ AND REREAD THE POEM UNTIL YOU UNDERSTAND—much “heavy reading” must be pondered and thought about over and over again until it is understood. If some of the most intelligent people in the world have to reread literature in order to understand it, don’t you think that you have to? • Above all: Enjoy and have fun! Put yourself in the “puzzle” mode trying to figure out what the poem’s message is.
Where the Sidewalk Ends by Shel Silverstein • There is a place where the sidewalk ends And before the street begins, And there the grass grows soft and white, And there the sun burns crimson bright, And there the moon-bird rests from his flight To cool in the peppermint wind. Let us leave this place where the smoke blows black And the dark street winds and bends. Past the pits where the asphalt flowers grow We shall walk with a walk that is measured and slow, And watch where the chalk-white arrows go To the place where the sidewalk ends. Yes we'll walk with a walk that is measured and slow, And we'll go where the chalk-white arrows go, For the children, they mark, and the children, they know The place where the sidewalk ends.
Dream Deferred by Langston Hughes • What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up Like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore-And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over-like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode?
Six Traits of Poetry Writing • 1. The Idea – the heart of your poem, point of your message • 2. The Organization – the internal structure • 3. The Voice – evidence of the writer behind the message • 4. The Word Choice – the vocabulary or terminology used • 5. The Fluency – the rhythm and flow how it plays to the ear • 6. The Form – the mechanical structure and correctness there of