Plan A Standard lecture course Plan B Standard

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Plan A Standard lecture course Plan B Standard lecture course, except: 1. Last lectures

Plan A Standard lecture course Plan B Standard lecture course, except: 1. Last lectures will be chosen by you -> electives 2. Last 4 labs will be an independent research project 3. 20% of grade will be “elective” • Paper • Talk • Research proposal • Poster • Exam

Plan C We will pick a problem in plant biology and see where it

Plan C We will pick a problem in plant biology and see where it takes us. 1. Phytoremediation 2. Plant products 3. Biofuels 4. Climate/CO 2 change 5. Stress responses/stress avoidance 6. Improving food production 7. Biotechnology 8. Plant movements 9. Plant signaling (including neurobiology) 10. Flowering? 11. Something else?

Plan C 1. Pick a problem 2. Pick some plants to study 3. Design

Plan C 1. Pick a problem 2. Pick some plants to study 3. Design some experiments 4. See where they lead us

Plan C Grading? Combination of papers and presentations • First presentation: 5 points •

Plan C Grading? Combination of papers and presentations • First presentation: 5 points • Research presentation: 10 points • Final presentation: 15 points • Assignments: 5 points each • Poster: 10 points • Intermediate report 10 points • Final report: 30 points Alternatives • Paper(s) instead of 1 or two presentations • Research proposal instead of a presentation • One or two exams? • Scavenger hunts?

Vegetative Plants 3 Parts 1. Leaf 2. Stem 3. Root

Vegetative Plants 3 Parts 1. Leaf 2. Stem 3. Root

Vegetative Plants 3 tissue types 1. Dermal 2. Ground 3. Vascular

Vegetative Plants 3 tissue types 1. Dermal 2. Ground 3. Vascular

 • Plant Development Cell division = growth

• Plant Development Cell division = growth

 • • Plant Development Cell division = growth Determination = what cell can

• • Plant Development Cell division = growth Determination = what cell can become

 • • • Plant Development Cell division = growth Determination = what cell

• • • Plant Development Cell division = growth Determination = what cell can become Differentiation = cells become specific types

 • • Plant Development Cell division = growth Determination = what cell can

• • Plant Development Cell division = growth Determination = what cell can become Differentiation = cells become specific types Pattern formation: developing specific structures in specific locations

 • • • Plant Development Cell division = growth Determination = what cell

• • • Plant Development Cell division = growth Determination = what cell can become Differentiation = cells become specific types Pattern formation Morphogenesis: organization into tissues & organs

Plant Development umbrella term for many processes • embryogenesis

Plant Development umbrella term for many processes • embryogenesis

Plant Development umbrella term for many processes • Embryogenesis • Seed dormancy and germination

Plant Development umbrella term for many processes • Embryogenesis • Seed dormancy and germination

Plant Development umbrella term for many processes • Embryogenesis • Seed dormancy and germination

Plant Development umbrella term for many processes • Embryogenesis • Seed dormancy and germination • Seedling Morphogenesis

Plant Development umbrella term for many processes • Embryogenesis • Seed dormancy and germination

Plant Development umbrella term for many processes • Embryogenesis • Seed dormancy and germination • Seedling Morphogenesis • Transition to flowering, fruit and seed formation

Plant Development umbrella term for many processes • Embryogenesis • Seed dormancy and germination

Plant Development umbrella term for many processes • Embryogenesis • Seed dormancy and germination • Seedling Morphogenesis • Transition to flowering, fruit and seed formation Many responses to environment

Plant Development Umbrella term for many processes Unique features of plant development • Cell

Plant Development Umbrella term for many processes Unique features of plant development • Cell walls: can’t move:

Plant Development Umbrella term for many processes Unique features of plant development • Cell

Plant Development Umbrella term for many processes Unique features of plant development • Cell walls: can’t move: Must grow towards/away from signals

Plant Development Umbrella term for many processes Unique features of plant development • Cell

Plant Development Umbrella term for many processes Unique features of plant development • Cell walls: cells can’t move: must grow instead • Plasticity: plants develop in response to environment

Unique features of plant development • Cell walls: cells can’t move • Plasticity: plants

Unique features of plant development • Cell walls: cells can’t move • Plasticity: plants develop in response to environment • Totipotency: most plant cells can form an entire new plant given the correct signals

 • • Unique features of plant development Cell walls: cells can’t move Plasticity:

• • Unique features of plant development Cell walls: cells can’t move Plasticity: plants develop in response to environment Totipotency: most plant cells can form an entire new plant given the correct signals Meristems: plants have perpetually embryonic regions, and can form new ones

 • • Unique features of plant development Cell walls: cells can’t move Plasticity:

• • Unique features of plant development Cell walls: cells can’t move Plasticity: plants develop in response to environment Totipotency: most plant cells can form an entire new plant given the correct signals Meristems: plants have perpetually embryonic regions, and can form new ones • No germ line!

Unique features of plant development Meristems: plants have perpetually embryonic regions, and can form

Unique features of plant development Meristems: plants have perpetually embryonic regions, and can form new ones • No germ line! Cells at apical meristem become flowers: allows Lamarckian evolution!

Unique features of plant development Meristems: plants have perpetually embryonic regions, and can form

Unique features of plant development Meristems: plants have perpetually embryonic regions, and can form new ones • No germ line! Cells at apical meristem become flowers: allows Lamarckian evolution! • Different parts of the same 2000 year old tree have different DNA & form different gametes

Cell walls Carbohydrate barrier surrounding cell Protects & gives cell shape 1˚ wall made

Cell walls Carbohydrate barrier surrounding cell Protects & gives cell shape 1˚ wall made first • mainly cellulose • Can stretch!

Cell walls Carbohydrate barrier surrounding cell Protects & gives cell shape 1˚ wall made

Cell walls Carbohydrate barrier surrounding cell Protects & gives cell shape 1˚ wall made first • mainly cellulose • Can stretch! 2˚ wall made after growth stops

Cell walls Carbohydrate barrier surrounding cell Protects & gives cell shape 1˚ wall made

Cell walls Carbohydrate barrier surrounding cell Protects & gives cell shape 1˚ wall made first • mainly cellulose • Can stretch! 2˚ wall made after growth stops • Lignins make it tough

Cell walls Carbohydrate barrier surrounding cell Protects & gives cell shape 1˚ wall made

Cell walls Carbohydrate barrier surrounding cell Protects & gives cell shape 1˚ wall made first • mainly cellulose • Can stretch! 2˚ wall made after growth stops • Lignins make it tough

Cell walls 1˚ wall made first 2˚ wall made after growth stops • Lignins

Cell walls 1˚ wall made first 2˚ wall made after growth stops • Lignins make it tough • Problem for "cellulosic Ethanol" from whole plants Middle lamella = space between 2 cells

Cell walls 1˚ wall made first 2˚ wall made after growth stops Middle lamella

Cell walls 1˚ wall made first 2˚ wall made after growth stops Middle lamella = space between 2 cells Plasmodesmata = gaps in walls that link cells

Cell Walls Plasmodesmata = gaps in walls that link cells • Lined with plasma

Cell Walls Plasmodesmata = gaps in walls that link cells • Lined with plasma membrane

Cell Walls Plasmodesmata = gaps in walls that link cells • Lined with plasma

Cell Walls Plasmodesmata = gaps in walls that link cells • Lined with plasma membrane • Desmotubule joins ER of both cells

Cell Walls Plasmodesmata = gaps in walls that link cells • Lined with plasma

Cell Walls Plasmodesmata = gaps in walls that link cells • Lined with plasma membrane • Desmotubule joins ER of both cells • Exclude objects > 1000 Dalton, yet viruses move through them!

Types of Organelles 1) Endomembrane System 2) Putative endosymbionts

Types of Organelles 1) Endomembrane System 2) Putative endosymbionts

Endomembrane system Common features • derived from ER

Endomembrane system Common features • derived from ER

Endomembrane system Common features • derived from ER • transport is in vesicles

Endomembrane system Common features • derived from ER • transport is in vesicles

Endomembrane system Common features • derived from ER • transport is in vesicles •

Endomembrane system Common features • derived from ER • transport is in vesicles • proteins & lipids are glycosylated

Endomembrane system Organelles derived from the ER 1) ER 2) Golgi 3) Vacuoles 4)

Endomembrane system Organelles derived from the ER 1) ER 2) Golgi 3) Vacuoles 4) Plasma Membrane 5) Nuclear Envelope 6) Endosome 7) Oleosomes

ER Network of membranes t/out cell 2 types: SER & RER

ER Network of membranes t/out cell 2 types: SER & RER

SER tubules that lack ribosomes fns: 1) Lipid syn 2) Steroid syn 3) drug

SER tubules that lack ribosomes fns: 1) Lipid syn 2) Steroid syn 3) drug detox 4) storing Ca 2+ 5) Glycogen catabolism

RER Flattened membranes studded with ribosomes 1˚ fn = protein synthesis -> ribosomes are

RER Flattened membranes studded with ribosomes 1˚ fn = protein synthesis -> ribosomes are making proteins

ER SER & RER make new membrane!

ER SER & RER make new membrane!

GOLGI COMPLEX Flattened stacks of membranes made from ER

GOLGI COMPLEX Flattened stacks of membranes made from ER

GOLGI COMPLEX Individual, flattened stacks of membranes made from ER Fn: “post office”: collect

GOLGI COMPLEX Individual, flattened stacks of membranes made from ER Fn: “post office”: collect ER products, process & deliver them Altered in each stack

GOLGI COMPLEX Individual, flattened stacks of membranes made from ER Fn: “post office”: collect

GOLGI COMPLEX Individual, flattened stacks of membranes made from ER Fn: “post office”: collect ER products, process & deliver them Altered in each stack Makes most cell wall carbohydrates!

GOLGI COMPLEX Individual, flattened stacks of membranes made from ER Fn: “post office”: collect

GOLGI COMPLEX Individual, flattened stacks of membranes made from ER Fn: “post office”: collect ER products, process & deliver them Altered in each stack Makes most cell wall carbohydrates! Protein’s address is built in

VACUOLES Derived from Golgi; Fns: 1)digestion a) Organelles b) food particles

VACUOLES Derived from Golgi; Fns: 1)digestion a) Organelles b) food particles

VACUOLES Derived from Golgi; Fns: 1)digestion a) Organelles b) food particles 2) storage

VACUOLES Derived from Golgi; Fns: 1)digestion a) Organelles b) food particles 2) storage

VACUOLES Derived from Golgi; Fns: 1) digestion a) Organelles b) food particles 2) storage

VACUOLES Derived from Golgi; Fns: 1) digestion a) Organelles b) food particles 2) storage 3) turgor: push plasma membrane against cell wall

VACUOLES Vacuoles are subdivided: lytic vacuoles are distinct from storage vacuoles!

VACUOLES Vacuoles are subdivided: lytic vacuoles are distinct from storage vacuoles!

Endomembrane system Organelles derived from the ER 1) ER 2) Golgi 3) Vacuoles 4)

Endomembrane system Organelles derived from the ER 1) ER 2) Golgi 3) Vacuoles 4) Plasma Membrane Regulates transport in/out of cell

Endomembrane system Organelles derived from the ER 1) ER 2) Golgi 3) Vacuoles 4)

Endomembrane system Organelles derived from the ER 1) ER 2) Golgi 3) Vacuoles 4) Plasma Membrane Regulates transport in/out of cell Lipids form barrier Proteins transport objects & info

Endomembrane System 5) Nuclear envelope: regulates transport in/out of nucleus Continuous with ER

Endomembrane System 5) Nuclear envelope: regulates transport in/out of nucleus Continuous with ER

Endomembrane System 5) Nuclear envelope: regulates transport in/out of nucleus Continuous with ER Transport

Endomembrane System 5) Nuclear envelope: regulates transport in/out of nucleus Continuous with ER Transport is only through nuclear pores

Endomembrane System 5) Nuclear envelope: regulates transport in/out of nucleus Continuous with ER Transport

Endomembrane System 5) Nuclear envelope: regulates transport in/out of nucleus Continuous with ER Transport is only through nuclear pores Need correct signal & receptor for import

Endomembrane System 5) Nuclear envelope: regulates transport in/out of nucleus Continuous with ER Transport

Endomembrane System 5) Nuclear envelope: regulates transport in/out of nucleus Continuous with ER Transport is only through nuclear pores Need correct signal & receptor for import new one for export

Endomembrane System Nucleus: spherical organelle bounded by 2 membranes and filled with chromatin =

Endomembrane System Nucleus: spherical organelle bounded by 2 membranes and filled with chromatin = mix of DNA and protein

Endomembrane System Nucleus: spherical organelle bounded by 2 membranes and filled with chromatin fns

Endomembrane System Nucleus: spherical organelle bounded by 2 membranes and filled with chromatin fns = information storage & retrieval Ribosome assembly (in nucleolus)

Endomembrane System Endosomes: vesicles derived from Golgi or Plasma membrane Fn: sorting materials &

Endomembrane System Endosomes: vesicles derived from Golgi or Plasma membrane Fn: sorting materials & recycling receptors

Endomembrane System Oleosomes: oil storage bodies derived from SER Surrounded by lipid monolayer!

Endomembrane System Oleosomes: oil storage bodies derived from SER Surrounded by lipid monolayer!

Endomembrane System Oleosomes: oil storage bodies derived from SER Surrounded by lipid monolayer! •

Endomembrane System Oleosomes: oil storage bodies derived from SER Surrounded by lipid monolayer! • filled with lipids: no internal hydrophobic effect!