Piaget and Cognitive Development Opener n Briefly Summarize

  • Slides: 76
Download presentation
+ Piaget and Cognitive Development

+ Piaget and Cognitive Development

+ Opener n Briefly Summarize Each of These Concepts n Schema n Disequilibrium n

+ Opener n Briefly Summarize Each of These Concepts n Schema n Disequilibrium n Assimilation n Accommodation

+ First - Some Ideas About Learning n Romantic n n Ideology: Predisposed to

+ First - Some Ideas About Learning n Romantic n n Ideology: Predisposed to Knowledge Plato and older philosophers: The mind exists somewhere else first Children are just mini-adults that just haven’t had the same experiences as adults

+ Ideas About Learning n. Cultural Transmission - Tabula Rasa n Aristotle - John

+ Ideas About Learning n. Cultural Transmission - Tabula Rasa n Aristotle - John Locke n Society and Adults can impress anything they want onto a child (at any time too) n All development from the environment

+ Progressive Ideology n Humans are go through stages of intellectual ability - these

+ Progressive Ideology n Humans are go through stages of intellectual ability - these are genetic n From experiencing the world, humans gain an understanding of it

+ Important Concepts of Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development n. These are important to

+ Important Concepts of Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development n. These are important to understand for Piaget’s theory!

+ Active Construction n Cognitive n Children n They ability is not simply taught

+ Active Construction n Cognitive n Children n They ability is not simply taught must actively explore the world must actively construct their own understanding through assimilation and accommodation

+ Qualitative Differences (vs. Quantity) n What do you think this means? n It

+ Qualitative Differences (vs. Quantity) n What do you think this means? n It is not a limit on how much a child can learn! n It is the type of understanding; the way that children are able to understand the world

+ Universal n These stages are the same for every child, regardless of their

+ Universal n These stages are the same for every child, regardless of their culture

+ Invariant Sequence n. A child cannot jump past stages. n. The stages must

+ Invariant Sequence n. A child cannot jump past stages. n. The stages must progress in order 1 -3 -2 -4

+ Age Does Not Equal Stage n Just because a child is a certain

+ Age Does Not Equal Stage n Just because a child is a certain age, it does not mean that they have reached the corresponding stage. n Just because a child is a certain age, does not mean they cannot progress to the next stage. n n THE AGES ARE APPROXIMATE AND AVERAGES (“Typical Children”)

+ Stage Mixture n There is no solid boundary between stages n Cognitive development

+ Stage Mixture n There is no solid boundary between stages n Cognitive development is a progression, and some cognitive abilities mix through each stage

+ Object Permanence

+ Object Permanence

+ Conservation - Number n Look n Is at each row of Jelly Beans

+ Conservation - Number n Look n Is at each row of Jelly Beans there more in the top row? n Is there less in the top row? n Are they the same amount?

+ Conservation - Area n Which cow has more grass to eat? A B

+ Conservation - Area n Which cow has more grass to eat? A B

+ Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning n 1 Volunteer Please n John is taller than Sam is

+ Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning n 1 Volunteer Please n John is taller than Sam is taller than Anne n Who is taller: Anne or John?

+ Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning n RULE: If you hit a glass with a piece of

+ Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning n RULE: If you hit a glass with a piece of paper, the glass will break n Mr. Zika hit a glass with a piece of paper: n What happened to the glass?

+ Scientific-Inductive Reasoning n Three strings are hung from a bar. String #1 and

+ Scientific-Inductive Reasoning n Three strings are hung from a bar. String #1 and #3 are of equal length. String #2 is longer. Charlie attached a 5 unit weight at the end of sting #2 and #3, and a 10 unit weight to #1. n Charlie wants to find out if the length of the string has an effect on the amount of time it takes the string to swing back and forth.

+ Conservation: Liquid n Which glass has more water?

+ Conservation: Liquid n Which glass has more water?

+ Reversibility n Which order will the balls come out in?

+ Reversibility n Which order will the balls come out in?

+ Sensory-Motor Stage 0 -2 Years old

+ Sensory-Motor Stage 0 -2 Years old

+ Reflex 0 -1 Month Reflex - Sucking Reflex - Grasping

+ Reflex 0 -1 Month Reflex - Sucking Reflex - Grasping

+ Reflex 0 -1 Month n No Causality

+ Reflex 0 -1 Month n No Causality

+ First Differentiations 1 -4 Months n Differentiation of Objects Baby will reject object

+ First Differentiations 1 -4 Months n Differentiation of Objects Baby will reject object if it’s not what they want

+ First Differentiations 1 -4 Months n No Special Behavior Regarding Vanishing Objects n

+ First Differentiations 1 -4 Months n No Special Behavior Regarding Vanishing Objects n Change in Perspective Seen as Change in Objects n No Connection Between Movement of Self and Objects (Intentionality)

+ Reproduction 4 -8 Months n Reproduction n Anticipates of Interesting Events (Assimilation) Positions

+ Reproduction 4 -8 Months n Reproduction n Anticipates of Interesting Events (Assimilation) Positions of Moving Objects

+ Coordination of Schemata 8 -12 Months n Application of Known Means to New

+ Coordination of Schemata 8 -12 Months n Application of Known Means to New Problems (Means to Ends) n Object Permanence Before After

+ Coordination of Schemata 8 -12 Months n Consistency of Objects

+ Coordination of Schemata 8 -12 Months n Consistency of Objects

+ Invention of New Means 12 -18 Months n Children Experiment: Create New Schema

+ Invention of New Means 12 -18 Months n Children Experiment: Create New Schema (Accommodate) for Unique Problems

+ Invention of New Means 12 -18 Months n Sequential n But Displacements Still

+ Invention of New Means 12 -18 Months n Sequential n But Displacements Still Can’t Imagine n Invisible Displacements

+ Representation 18 -24 Months n Representation of Spatial Relationships… But Recent Studies Show

+ Representation 18 -24 Months n Representation of Spatial Relationships… But Recent Studies Show Errors of Scale

+ Representation 18 -24 Months n Invention of New Means Via Internal Combinations (Mental

+ Representation 18 -24 Months n Invention of New Means Via Internal Combinations (Mental Images) n Children Begin to Think About Solutions to Problems

+ Representation 18 -24 Months n Invention Of New Means Via Internal Combinations (Mental

+ Representation 18 -24 Months n Invention Of New Means Via Internal Combinations (Mental Images) n Children Begin to Think About Solutions to Problems Pretend Play

+ • • Sensory-Motor Stage 0 -2 Years old Reflex activities to purposeful motor

+ • • Sensory-Motor Stage 0 -2 Years old Reflex activities to purposeful motor activity Understanding of objects and spacial relationships From a new being to beginnings of language Pretend play emerges in the next stage

+ Pre-Operational Stage (Pre-Logical) 2 -7 Years Old n Language Explosion: Children begin to

+ Pre-Operational Stage (Pre-Logical) 2 -7 Years Old n Language Explosion: Children begin to use words to represent objects n Thinking n n n is still relatively limited; It is dominated by: Egocentrism Centration: Judgment Based upon Perception Lack of Transformation Reasoning Lack of Reversibility All Lead to lack of Conservation

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Egocentrism” “Is your mom home? ” Nods head

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Egocentrism” “Is your mom home? ” Nods head ‘yes’ Unable to understand that other people have different points of view

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Centration” Children focus on the perceptual; center on

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Centration” Children focus on the perceptual; center on what is seen, not evaluating process

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Centration” Children focus on the perceptual; center on

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Centration” Children focus on the perceptual; center on what is seen, not evaluating process

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Transformational Reasoning” Focus on the original state and

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Transformational Reasoning” Focus on the original state and the final state, but not the process of transformation

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Reversibility” Inability to follow a line of reasoning

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Reversibility” Inability to follow a line of reasoning back to the beginning; cannot mentally reverse actions

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Reversibility” Inability to follow a line of reasoning

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Reversibility” Inability to follow a line of reasoning back to the beginning; cannot mentally reverse actions

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Reversibility” WHY? ? ? - Most of life

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Reversibility” WHY? ? ? - Most of life (experience) in the sensorimotor stage and beyond involve few examples or patterns that can be perceived as reversible

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Conservation” n Centration, Lack of Transformational Reasoning, and

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Conservation” n Centration, Lack of Transformational Reasoning, and Lack of Reversibility = Lack of Conservation Centration

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Conservation” n Centration, Lack of Transformational Reasoning, and

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Conservation” n Centration, Lack of Transformational Reasoning, and Lack of Reversibility = Lack of Conservation Mass - 4 Mass - 6

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Conservation” n Centration, Lack of Transformational Reasoning, and

+ Pre-Operational 2 -7 Years Old “Conservation” n Centration, Lack of Transformational Reasoning, and Lack of Reversibility = Lack of Conservation Liquid - 5 Liquid - 9 Liquid - 10

+ Piaget and Conservation n Piaget suggested that each of the conservation skills built

+ Piaget and Conservation n Piaget suggested that each of the conservation skills built on each other

+ Concrete Operational Stage 7 -11 Years Old n REMEMBER: Progress between stages is

+ Concrete Operational Stage 7 -11 Years Old n REMEMBER: Progress between stages is continuous; there are no abrupt changes! n “Concrete”: n Logical (real, observable) Operations n Seriation n Classification n Theory many”) of Mind and Social Interactions (“one among

+ Concrete Operational 7 -11 Years Old “Logical Operations” n Can use logic to

+ Concrete Operational 7 -11 Years Old “Logical Operations” n Can use logic to develop understanding of all of the conservation tests n Concrete n Still - Real - Tangible - Physical struggle with verbal or hypothetical problems

+ Concrete Operational 7 -11 Years Old “Logical Operations” n Can use logic to

+ Concrete Operational 7 -11 Years Old “Logical Operations” n Can use logic to develop understanding of all of the conservation tests n Concrete n Still - Real - Tangible - Physical struggle with verbal or hypothetical problems

+ Concrete Operational 7 -11 Years Old “Seriation” The ability to mentally arrange a

+ Concrete Operational 7 -11 Years Old “Seriation” The ability to mentally arrange a set of elements accurately along a dimension such as size, weight, and volume

+ Concrete Operational 7 -11 Years Old “Classification” Braden's classification error The ability to

+ Concrete Operational 7 -11 Years Old “Classification” Braden's classification error The ability to form collections of things beyond a single variable; Understanding of relationships between classes and sub-classes

+ Concrete Operational 7 -11 Years Old “Classification” Wooden Beads Brown Beads White Beads

+ Concrete Operational 7 -11 Years Old “Classification” Wooden Beads Brown Beads White Beads The ability to form collections of things beyond a single variable; Understanding of relationships between classes and sub-classes

+ Concrete Operational 7 -11 Years Old “Classification” White-throated Robin • Bird • Mammal

+ Concrete Operational 7 -11 Years Old “Classification” White-throated Robin • Bird • Mammal • Animal • American Species • Insectivorous The ability to form collections of things beyond a single variable; Understanding of relationships between classes and sub-classes

+ Concrete Operational 7 -11 Years Old “Theory of Mind” The ability to take

+ Concrete Operational 7 -11 Years Old “Theory of Mind” The ability to take on the views of others: This allows truly social interactions; cooperation, sympathy and empathy

+ Concrete Operational 7 -11 Years Old “Theory of Mind” The ability to take

+ Concrete Operational 7 -11 Years Old “Theory of Mind” The ability to take on the views of others: This allows truly social interactions; cooperation, sympathy and empathy

+ Concrete Operational 7 -11 Years Old “Theory of Mind” Oops Broken Lamp NOT

+ Concrete Operational 7 -11 Years Old “Theory of Mind” Oops Broken Lamp NOT Oops Application to rules: intentionality and justice

+ Formal Operational Stage 11+ Years Old n Adolescents begin using abstract logical thought

+ Formal Operational Stage 11+ Years Old n Adolescents begin using abstract logical thought n Quality of thinking changes; becomes like adult thinking n New form of egocentrism: Ideals vs. Reality n *Some adults do not fully enter or exercise formal operations

+ Formal Operational Stage - 11+ “Deductive Reasoning” n Ability to apply general concepts

+ Formal Operational Stage - 11+ “Deductive Reasoning” n Ability to apply general concepts to specific situations n (Still allows room for disequilibrium!)

+ Formal Operational Stage - 11+ “Deductive Reasoning” Still allows room for disequilibrium!

+ Formal Operational Stage - 11+ “Deductive Reasoning” Still allows room for disequilibrium!

+ Formal Operational Stage - 11+ “Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning” n Ability to apply HYPOTHETICAL general

+ Formal Operational Stage - 11+ “Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning” n Ability to apply HYPOTHETICAL general concepts to specific situations n Ability to reason about a ‘false premise’ and still come to a logical conclusion

+ Formal Operational Stage - 11+ “Inductive Reasoning” n Ability to reason about specific

+ Formal Operational Stage - 11+ “Inductive Reasoning” n Ability to reason about specific facts and come to a general conclusion (Scientific laws)

+ Formal Operational Stage - 11+ “Inductive Reasoning” n Ability to reason about specific

+ Formal Operational Stage - 11+ “Inductive Reasoning” n Ability to reason about specific facts and come to a general conclusion (Scientific laws)

+ Formal Operational Stage - 11+ “Inductive Reasoning” n Ability to reason about specific

+ Formal Operational Stage - 11+ “Inductive Reasoning” n Ability to reason about specific facts and come to a general conclusion (Scientific laws) n Darwin’s Finches: n All Finches + n Different Traits + n Different Islands + n = Common Ancestor n = Natural Selection

+ Formal Operational Stage - 11+ “Combinatorial Reasoning” n Ability time to reason about

+ Formal Operational Stage - 11+ “Combinatorial Reasoning” n Ability time to reason about a number of variables at one Not something a concrete operational child can do reliably n EX: The myriad factors that lead to poor educational results for some groups of children and not others, and how the process perpetuates itself! SOCIO-E PEER I NFLUE CONOM NCE I C P S A T G A T D U S R WO TURE C U R T S ACCESS TO SUPPLIES INFRA L URBAN O O H SC /RURAL RACISM L A N IO T U INSTIT SINGLE-PARENT NCE E I R E ACESS EXP R TO PRE E H NATAL C TEAC ARE n

+ Formal Operational Stage - 11+ “Reflective Abstraction” n Internal thought or reflection based

+ Formal Operational Stage - 11+ “Reflective Abstraction” n Internal thought or reflection based upon available knowledge n Ability to construct new knowledge from internal reflection and abstract thinking alone!!! Mr. Zika’s Example Darwin’s Finches

+ Formal Operational Stage - 11+ “Egocentrism” n New-found logical abilities n In the

+ Formal Operational Stage - 11+ “Egocentrism” n New-found logical abilities n In the mind of adolescents: if it is logical to them, then it is always right n If it is illogical to them, then it is always wrong n The world is not always logically or rationally ordered!

+ Critiques of Piaget’s Theories n Small Sample Size (his children & eventually about

+ Critiques of Piaget’s Theories n Small Sample Size (his children & eventually about 1500 total) n He may have underestimated ages of advancement n Some of the tasks he tested can be performed successfully with some instruction n BUT… n Still consistent n Left us with an understanding that children do think differently n Still used by teachers, parents, and childcare workers

+ Review: 6 Important Concepts n Active Construction n Qualitative Differences n Universal n

+ Review: 6 Important Concepts n Active Construction n Qualitative Differences n Universal n Invariant n Age Sequence Does Not Equal Stage n Stage Mixture

+ Piaget’s 4 Stages

+ Piaget’s 4 Stages

+ Lev Vygotsky n About same time as Piaget - Died at 38 n

+ Lev Vygotsky n About same time as Piaget - Died at 38 n Addressed the social aspect of learning

+ Vygotsky n Piaget and Active Construction through Exploration VS. n Vygotsky says ok,

+ Vygotsky n Piaget and Active Construction through Exploration VS. n Vygotsky says ok, but we would not go far with that alone n We need guidance; knowledge from generations before n Can these be reconciled, or incompatible?

+ Vygotsky n. Culture does play a role n. Language n. Numerical Systems n.

+ Vygotsky n. Culture does play a role n. Language n. Numerical Systems n. Writing n. Scientific Concepts n. Values of types of thinking

+ Vygotsky and Language n Piaget n. Private as source of thought - language

+ Vygotsky and Language n Piaget n. Private as source of thought - language as byproduct of thought Speech and Inner Speech

+ Zone of Proximal Development ZPD I cannot do it, even with help I

+ Zone of Proximal Development ZPD I cannot do it, even with help I can do it, with help (Scaffolding) ZPD I can do it on my own!

+ Scaffolding

+ Scaffolding

+ Are Piaget and Vygotsky Compatible? n Effects of parents, peers, and teachers…

+ Are Piaget and Vygotsky Compatible? n Effects of parents, peers, and teachers…