# Physics Electricity extra material What is Electricity Electricity

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Physics Electricity (extra material)

What is Electricity? • Electricity may be defined as the flow of electric charge (mainly electrons) • It is a form of energy which we use to power machines and electrical devices • When electrical charges are not moving, electricity is called static electricity

Electric Current • An electric current is the rate of flow of electric charge 9 mainly protons) past a point or region with respect to time • It is the quantity of charge that passes through a surface (for example the cross section of a wire or a component) per unit time • A current always moves in opposite direction to the flow of electrons

What is an Electrical Circuit? • Electric circuit, path for transmitting electric current. • It is simply a closed conducting loop that contains a generator or dry cell and other components like lamps

Components of an Electric Circuit The Dry Cell • Dry cell or battery: it is the generator or the source of current • The dry cell has 2 terminals: a positive and a negative one • It can come in different shapes

Components of an Electric Circuit The Lamp • A filament lamp is a common type of light bulb • It contains – a thin coil of wire called the filament. This heats up when an electric current passes through it, and produces light as a result – A glass bulb – A metal – A base

Components of an Electric Circuit The Switch • Switch is a device used for making and breaking electric current through the circuit • If a switch is on, the current will flow • If a switch is off, the current will not flow

Components of an Electric Circuit Electric Wires • The wires in a circuit carry the electric current to various components of the circuit • An electric wire should be a conductor of electricity on the inside and an insulator on the outside

Conductors and Insulators • Conductors are material that allow the passage of electricity and heat – EXAMPLE: iron, cupper, aluminum… • Insulators are materials that do not allow the passage of electricity and heat – EXAMPLE: wood, glass, rubber…

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