Physics 2225 Standing Waves Minilab 1 Standing Waves

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Physics 2225 – Standing Waves Minilab 1 Standing Waves Department of Physics & Astronomy

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves Minilab 1 Standing Waves Department of Physics & Astronomy Page 1

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves Today, we will observe standing waves on a string

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves Today, we will observe standing waves on a string in order to learn and verify how the formation of standing waves depend on: • Excitation Frequency • Tension of the string • Linear mass density of the string PURPOSE Department of Physics & Astronomy Page 2

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves v THEORY Department of Physics & Astronomy Page 3

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves v THEORY Department of Physics & Astronomy Page 3

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves Note that waves reflections depend on how the string

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves Note that waves reflections depend on how the string is attached at one end. • End of string is fixed, the wave gets inverted • End of string is loose, the wave is not inverted THEORY Department of Physics & Astronomy Page 4

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves We use the term superimposed to mean two waves

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves We use the term superimposed to mean two waves that are overlapping. Below, these two waves are travelling in opposite directions. Moving to right Moving to left The sum of the two waves (“superposition”) THEORY Nodes Department of Physics & Astronomy Anti-Nodes Page 5

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves If the length remains unchanged, standing waves only occur

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves If the length remains unchanged, standing waves only occur at specific frequencies. • In our case, we have strings with nodes at both ends, which produces the following: l/2 l 3 l/2 THEORY Department of Physics & Astronomy Page 6

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves The two nodes are here Mass creates tension in

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves The two nodes are here Mass creates tension in string: T = mg Department of Physics & Astronomy Mechanical Wave Driver creates waves (Frequency and Amplitude controlled by Capstone Software) EQUIPMENT Page 7

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF SPEED OF WAVE ØThe velocity of

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF SPEED OF WAVE ØThe velocity of the wave can be calculated as follows V = f l (or f = v/ l) (read off frequency in Capstone Software, measure l when you see a standing wave pattern). ØStart from low frequency and observe several different standing waves (different f and l). ØPlot f versus 1/ l The slope of this graph equals v. ØRepeat the procedure using a different tension in the string (use a different mass at the end of the string). V should be different because it depends on the tension T. PROCEDURE Department of Physics & Astronomy Page 8

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves • Once you have collected your data, you will

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves • Once you have collected your data, you will need to plot f versus 1/λ in Excel. The slope of your graph is equal to v. If you are still having struggles with plotting in Excel, please refer to the Excel Tutorial online, or make sure your lab partner can explain it to you! PROCEDURE Department of Physics & Astronomy Page 9

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves PROCEDURE Department of Physics & Astronomy Page 10

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves PROCEDURE Department of Physics & Astronomy Page 10

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves • You then need to get lunstretched with your

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves • You then need to get lunstretched with your ruler by taking the string off the pulley system • To find mstretched, we need the following equation: mstretched = munstretched * lunstretched • When we plug this into mstretched , we get • Please correct this last equation in your lab manual on page 14! It is incorrectly printed there. PROCEDURE Department of Physics & Astronomy Page 11

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves PROCEDURE Department of Physics & Astronomy Page 12

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves PROCEDURE Department of Physics & Astronomy Page 12

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves Homework Policies • You must do your homework BEFORE

Physics 2225 – Standing Waves Homework Policies • You must do your homework BEFORE CLASS, and everyone must turn in their own work. Lab Report Policies • • Submit one lab report per group. Groups should generally consist of two people. Make sure both members of the group write their name on the lab report! FINAL HINTS Department of Physics & Astronomy Page 14