Physical Geography The Big Idea The physical geography

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Physical Geography The Big Idea The physical geography of the Indian Subcontinent features unique

Physical Geography The Big Idea The physical geography of the Indian Subcontinent features unique physical features and a variety of climates and resources. Main Ideas Towering mountains, large rivers, and broad plains are the key physical features of the Indian Subcontinent. The Indian Subcontinent has a great variety of climate regions and resources. Holt Mc. Dougal,

Main Idea 1: Towering mountains, large rivers, and broad plains are the key physical

Main Idea 1: Towering mountains, large rivers, and broad plains are the key physical features of the Indian Subcontinent. • A subcontinent is a large landmass that is smaller than a continent. • The Indian Subcontinent is a triangular wedge of land that juts out from the southernmost portion of Asia. • The Indian Subcontinent is also called South Asia. • The Indian Subcontinent is made up of seven countries: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. • The Indian Subcontinent is one of the most distinctive geographic regions in the world. Holt Mc. Dougal,

Key Physical Features Mountains • Hindu Kush mountains divide the subcontinent from Central Asia.

Key Physical Features Mountains • Hindu Kush mountains divide the subcontinent from Central Asia. • The Eastern and Western Ghats separate India’s east and west coasts from the country’s interior. • The Himalayas run along the northern border and are home to the world’s highest mountains. Rivers and Plains • The rivers flood each year, leaving fertile plains. • India’s most important river is the Ganges. • A delta is a landform at the mouth of a river. • The Ganges Plain is India’s farming heartland. • The Indus River creates a fertile plain known as the Indus River Valley. Holt Mc. Dougal, Other Features • The Deccan is a large, hilly plateau located to the south of the Ganges Plain. • The Thar, or Great Indian Desert, is made up of rolling sand dunes. • The Tarai in southern Nepal has fertile farmland tropical jungles.

Main Idea 2: The Indian Subcontinent has a great variety of climate regions and

Main Idea 2: The Indian Subcontinent has a great variety of climate regions and resources. The Indian Subcontinent has four climate regions: the highland climate, the subtropical climate, the tropical climate, and the desert or steppe climate. Monsoons have a huge influence on the weather and climates in the subcontinent. Agricultural and mineral resources are plentiful. Holt Mc. Dougal,

Climate Regions 1. Highland climate – Himalayas – Brings cool temperatures to much of

Climate Regions 1. Highland climate – Himalayas – Brings cool temperatures to much of Nepal and Bhutan 2. Humid subtropical climate – Plains south of the Himalayas – Hot, humid summers with plenty of rainfall 3. Tropical climate – Covers much of the subcontinent – Tropical savanna in central India and Sri Lanka – Humid tropical climate in southwest India, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and Bangladesh 4. Desert and steppe climate – Throughout southern and western India and most of Pakistan – Dry Holt Mc. Dougal,

Monsoons are seasonal winds that bring either moist or dry air to an area.

Monsoons are seasonal winds that bring either moist or dry air to an area. Summer monsoons bring heavy rains and fertile growing conditions to many places on the Indian Subcontinent. In the winter, the monsoons change direction. The winter monsoons bring dry air from the north, and little rain falls during this time of year. Holt Mc. Dougal,

Natural Resources Agricultural Resources • Fertile soil • Timber • Livestock Mineral Resources •

Natural Resources Agricultural Resources • Fertile soil • Timber • Livestock Mineral Resources • Iron ore – India • Coal – India • Natural gas reserves – Pakistan • Gemstones – Sri Lanka Holt Mc. Dougal,

History and Culture of India The Big Idea Ancient civilizations and powerful empires have

History and Culture of India The Big Idea Ancient civilizations and powerful empires have shaped the history and culture of India. Main Ideas • Advanced civilizations and powerful empires shaped the early history of India. • Powerful empires controlled India for hundreds of years. • Independence from Great Britain led to the division of India into several countries. • Religion and the caste system are two important parts of Indian culture. Holt Mc. Dougal,

Main Idea 1: Advanced civilizations and powerful empires shaped the early history of India.

Main Idea 1: Advanced civilizations and powerful empires shaped the early history of India. Ancient Civilizations • Around 2300 BC the Harappan civilization began in the Indus River Valley. • The Ayrans, invaders from Central Asia, entered India around 1500 BC. • Aryan culture helped shape the language, religion, and caste system of India. Early Empires • By 223 BC the Mauryan Empire controled most of the Indian Subcontinent. • Emperor Asoka helped spread Buddhism in India. • Indian trade and culture flourished during the Gupta Empire. Holt Mc. Dougal,

Main Idea 2: Powerful empires controlled India for hundreds of years. The Mughal Empire

Main Idea 2: Powerful empires controlled India for hundreds of years. The Mughal Empire The British Empire • Babur establisheed the Mughal Empire in northern India in 1526 • The British East India Company established trade in India in the early 1600 s. • Indian trade, culture, and religion thrived under the rule of Akbar the Great. • By the mid-1800 s the company controlled more than half of the Indian Subcontinent. • By 1700 the Mughal Empire ruled almost all of the Indian Subcontinent. • India became a British colony. • Indian troops revolted against the East India Company. • The British government took direct control of India in 1858. • India and Pakistan gained independence in 1947. Holt Mc. Dougal,

Main Idea 3: Independence from Great Britain led to the division of India into

Main Idea 3: Independence from Great Britain led to the division of India into several countries. • Indians began to question British rule and created the Indian National Congress. • Mohandas Gandhi was the most important leader of the Indian independence movement. • Great Britain finally agreed to make India independent, but they feared that a civil war would erupt between India’s Hindu and Muslim communities. • To avoid civil war, the British government agreed to the partition, or division, of India into two separate countries: India and Pakistan. • Sri Lanka and Maldives gained their independence from Great Britain. • In 1971 East Pakistan broke away to form the country of Bangladesh. Holt Mc. Dougal,

Main Idea 4: Religion and the caste system are two important parts of Indian

Main Idea 4: Religion and the caste system are two important parts of Indian culture. Religion Hinduism • India is the birthplace of several major religions, including Hinduism and Buddhism. • • • One of the world’s oldest religions Hinduism—the dominant religion of India Believe everything in the universe is part of a single spirit called Brahman Believe one’s ultimate goal is to reunite one’s soul with Brahman Believe in reincarnation • • Buddhism • • Began in northern India in the late 500 s BC Buddhism—a religion based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha Believe people can rise above their desire for material goods and reach nirvana Nirvana is a state of perfect peace. Holt Mc. Dougal,

The Caste System • The caste system divided Indian society into groups based on

The Caste System • The caste system divided Indian society into groups based on a person’s birth or occupation. • The caste system features four main classes, originally based on occupations. • Below the four main castes are the Dalits, members of India’s lowest class. • Many rules guided interaction between the classes. Holt Mc. Dougal,

India Today The Big Idea India today features a blend of modern and traditional

India Today The Big Idea India today features a blend of modern and traditional culture, a rapidly growing population, and a developing economy. Main Ideas • Daily life in India is centered around cities, villages, and religion. • Today India faces many challenges, including a growing population and economic development. Holt Mc. Dougal,

Main Idea 1: Daily life in India is centered around cities, villages, and religion.

Main Idea 1: Daily life in India is centered around cities, villages, and religion. Cities Villages • Two largest cities— Mumbai (Bombay) and Kolkata (Calcutta) • Most Indians live in rural areas. • Plays a key role in Indian daily life • Most villagers work as farmers and live with an extended family. • Most practice Hinduism. • Bangalore and Mumbai— universities, research centers, and high-tech businesses • Most people struggle to earn a living in the cities. • Paved roads and electricity have only recently reached many Indian villages. Holt Mc. Dougal, Religion • Many follow other religions (Islam, Buddhism, etc. ). • Millions practice Sikhism and Jainism. • Religious celebrations are important.

Main Idea 2: Today India faces many challenges, including a growing population and economic

Main Idea 2: Today India faces many challenges, including a growing population and economic development. Population • India is the world’s second most populous country. • India’s huge population places a strain on India’s environment and resources. • Urbanization is taking place. Urbanization is the increase in the percentage of people who live in cities. Holt Mc. Dougal,

Government and the Economy • India is the world’s largest democracy. • India is

Government and the Economy • India is the world’s largest democracy. • India is one of the strongest nations in Asia. • One of India’s largest industries is its moviemaking industry—called Bollywood. • Although India is one of the world’s top five industrial countries, millions of Indians live in poverty. Holt Mc. Dougal,

Challenges for India 1. Poverty • India’s government instituted a reform called the green

Challenges for India 1. Poverty • India’s government instituted a reform called the green revolution, a program that encouraged farmers to adopt modern agricultural methods. • The government had succeeded in attracting many hightech businesses to India. 2. A growing population 3. Relationship with Pakistan Holt Mc. Dougal,

India’s Neighbors The Big Idea Despite cultural differences, the countries that border India share

India’s Neighbors The Big Idea Despite cultural differences, the countries that border India share similar challenges. Main Ideas • Many different ethnic groups and religions influence the culture of India’s neighbors. • Rapid population growth, ethnic conflicts, and environmental threats are major challenges to the region today. Holt Mc. Dougal,

Main Idea 1: Many different ethnic groups and religions influence the culture of India’s

Main Idea 1: Many different ethnic groups and religions influence the culture of India’s neighbors. • Five countries share the subcontinent with India: Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and Sri Lanka. • These countries have significantly different cultures. • The people of these countries come from many different ethnic groups. • A variety of religions exist on the Indian Subcontinent. Holt Mc. Dougal,

People and Religions of the Indian Subcontinent People • The Indian Subcontinent is home

People and Religions of the Indian Subcontinent People • The Indian Subcontinent is home to many different ethnic groups. • The Sherpas, an ethnic group from the mountains of Nepal, often serve as guides through the Himalayas. • Bhutan’s largest ethnic group originally came from Tibet. • Many of Sri Lanka’s Tamil people came from India to work the country’s huge plantations. Religions • Pakistan: most practice Islam; small portions of the population follow Hinduism, Christianity, and tribal religions. Bangladesh: most practice Islam; small portions of the population follow Hinduism, Christianity, and tribal religions. Nepal: the dominant religion is Hinduism, although Buddhism is practiced in some parts of the country. • Bhutan: the dominant religion is Buddhism. • Sri Lanka: the dominant religion is Buddhism. Holt Mc. Dougal,

Main Idea 2: Rapid population growth, ethnic conflicts, and environmental threats are major challenges

Main Idea 2: Rapid population growth, ethnic conflicts, and environmental threats are major challenges to the region today. Major Challenges for Pakistan • Lack of government stability • Rapid population growth • Troubled relationship with India, especially over the territory of Kashmir • Terrorists within Pakistan’s borders Holt Mc. Dougal,

Major Challenges for Bangladesh • Over population – One of the world’s most densely

Major Challenges for Bangladesh • Over population – One of the world’s most densely populated countries – Dhaka (capital and largest city) – over 11. 5 million people • Flooding Holt Mc. Dougal,

Major Challenges for Nepal • Rapid population growth – Population has more than doubled

Major Challenges for Nepal • Rapid population growth – Population has more than doubled in the last 30 years. – Kathmandu (capital and largest city) – overcrowded and impoverished • One of the world’s least-developed nations • Deforestation • Controlling tourism Holt Mc. Dougal,

Major Challenges for Sri Lanka • Conflict between Sri Lanka’s two largest ethnic groups:

Major Challenges for Sri Lanka • Conflict between Sri Lanka’s two largest ethnic groups: the Tamil and the Sinhalese • Tsunami in 2004 – Killed thousands of Sri Lankans – Crippled Sri Lanka’s fishing and agricultural industries Holt Mc. Dougal,

Bhutan Today • Small mountain kingdom in the Himalayas • Most people earn a

Bhutan Today • Small mountain kingdom in the Himalayas • Most people earn a living as farmers. • Tourism is an important industry. • Government limits the number of visitors in order to protect the environment and Bhutan’s way of life. Holt Mc. Dougal,