- Slides: 8
Phrases Prepositional Phrases and Appositive Phrases
Phrase • A phrase is a small group of related words that does not contain a subject and predicate. Example The girl (with the stunning purple highlights) (in her hair) goes (to Elite Physique) (for color).
Prepositional Phrases • Prepositional phrases begin with a preposition, end with the noun or pronoun object of that preposition, and may have modifiers in between the preposition and the object. • The object of a preposition may be compound; that is, it may be more than one noun or pronoun. • Prepositional phrases are usually used as adjectives and adverbs.
Punctuating Prepositional Phrases • Use a comma after an introductory prepositional phrase of four or more words. • However, if one introductory prepositional phrase is followed by one or more added prepositional phrases, put a comma after the last one only. EXAMPLE In the deep waters of the dark lagoon, piranhas attacked unsuspecting swimmers.
Finding and Punctuating Prepositional Phrases 1. Marvin stood at the door of the gym. 2. In your new physics classroom do you have the materials for every experiment? 3. In the sewer drainage trench the workers were digging in the mud, slime, and filth. 4. Look in your literature textbook on page 456 for the introduction to the Romantic Age.
Appositive Phrases • An appositive is a noun or pronoun that immediately follows another noun or pronoun and identifies, renames, or explains it. When an appositive is accompanied by one or more modifiers, it becomes an appositive phrase. EXAMPLES Meg, Ethan’s former girlfriend, has moved to Westlake High School in Austin. Mark Twain, the author of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, also wrote many short stories.
Punctuating Appositive Phrases • A nonessential appositive phrase must be set off by commas. EXAMPLES The short story “The Interlopers” was written by H. H. Munro. (essential) “The Rocking-Horse Winner, ” a short story by D. H. Lawrence, has a shocking conclusion. (nonessential)
Finding and Punctuating Appositive Phrases 1. The snow leopard a member of the cat family lives high in the mountains of northern India. 2. The fur of Arctic animals protects them from harsh winter weather conditions bitter cold and ice. 3. The caracal a native cat of Africa and Asia is also called the Persian lynx.