- Slides: 25
Photosynthesis, Respiration & Chemical Energy
Chemical Change (Reaction) • Chemical reactions occur when old bonds break and new bonds form.
Chemical Change (Reaction) • Chemical reactions involve two main kinds of changes that you can observe – – formation of new substances and – changes in energy (i. e. chemical heat & light)
Pow H C Pow H Snap OPow O Snap Old Bonds Break New Bonds Form © Beadle, 2009
Endo/Exothermic Reactions Review (This will be related to Photosynthesis & Respiration) • Exothermic: Respiration – Give off more energy during the reaction Energy © Beadle, 2009 • Endothermic: Photosynthesis – Take in or Absorb energy during the reaction. Energy
Photosynthesis & Respiration + Endo/Exothermic Reactions Photosynthesis: (Like Endothermic Rxn’s) • Plants take in Water (H 2 O) and Carbon Dioxide (CO 2). Plants take in Light energy from the sun and transform it into chemical energy by making sugar (C 6 H 12 O 6) and Oxygen (O 2 )(plant poo)! Respiration: (Like Exothermic Rxn’s) • Animals breath in Oxygen (O 2 ) and eat the sugar (C 6 H 12 O 6) from plants. Animals then metabolize the sugar and oxygen and convert it back into Carbon Dioxide (CO 2) and Water (H 2 O) (Exhaled Animal poo). This process releases the stored chemical energy and converts it into mechanical and heat energy.
Photosynthesis & Respiration Sugar Oxygen Light High Chemical Energy Got it from light Mechanical Plants Animals Heat Water Carbon Dioxide Low Chemical Energy Some of the energy was used The chemicals go back and forth going from a low level of energy with Carbon Dioxide and Water to a high level of energy with Sugar and Oxygen. The sun gives the plant the necessary energy to transform lower levels of chemical energy into
Light How it all works Plants Animals Endothermic Exothermic (energy in) (energy out) Sugar. Plants & Oxygen Animals CO 2 & H 2 O (Chemical Energy) Photosynthesis Process of using light to build powerful energy filled chemicals. This is like the factory which takes light energy from the sun and converts it into chemical energy. That chemical energy is bundled and stored in the chemicals – sugar and oxygen – which is then shipped to the critters in the rest of the ecosystem. (Mechanical & Heat) Respiration Process of unpacking the energy from the chemicals so that we animals can move. The chemicals received from the plants are packed with energy. It is like the batteries for our bodies which allows us to move and function. Without it, we would not be able to move, breath, think, live.
Light How it all works Plants Animals Endothermic Exothermic (energy in) (energy out) Sugar. Plants & Oxygen Animals CO 2 & H 2 O (Chemical Energy) (Mechanical & Heat) 1. Sun Light (bright sun hand gesture) • Plants take in light energy from the sun plus the CO 2 & H 2 O from animals and… 2. Chem Food/Poo O 2 (puke hand gesture) • • converts it into volatile power packing chemical energy as sugar (food) & oxygen (poo). it is later sent to the animals. 3. Mechanical Energy Be Free in Me (Power Ranger) • Animals take in the chemical energy as Sugar and Oxygen and unleash the energy as mechanical and heat energy – and convert the chemicals back into powerless carbon dioxide and water. These chemicals are then recycled back to the plants to collect energy.
Light Energy Sequence Animals Plants Endothermic Exothermic (energy in) (energy out) This slide gives you a mnemonic device to help you remember the energy sequence of how energy CO Sugar. Plants & Oxygen Animals 2 & H 2 O (Chemical Energy) flows in an ecosystem. (Mechanical & Heat) I want you to think of this Giraffe to remember the acronym. 1. Light Energy 2. Chemical Energy 3. Mechanical & Heat Li-Che-M High (Lick em) Energy
Chemical Sequence Light Plants Animals Endothermic Exothermic (energy in) (energy out) This slide gives you a mnemonic device to help you remember the chemical sequence of the chemicals flows in an ecosystem. Sugar. Plants &how Oxygen Animals CO 2 & H 2 O (Chemical Energy) (Mechanical & Heat) I want you to think of this sock to remember the acronym. Light Energy Chemical Energy Mechanical & Heat Energy Sugar & Oxygen Carbon Dioxide & Water SO CD Wet SOC?
Light Putting it all together Plants Animals Endothermic Exothermic (energy in) (energy out) Sugar. Plants & Oxygen Animals CO 2 & H 2 O (Chemical Energy) (Mechanical & Heat) When putting it all together, the sun continually sheds its light energy to the plants. The plants use that energy to produce food (chemical energy) and ships it to the animals where they unpack that energy and use it to move by converting it to mechanical and heat energy. The chemicals act like a conveyor belt which transports that energy from one living organism to another. Without those chemicals transporting the energy, you and I would not be alive simply because without it, energy would not be able to move from plants (producer) to animals (primary & secondary consumers).
Photosynthesis (Like an endothermic reaction) Photosynthesis takes place in the Plant Cells Chloroplast The Chloroplasts are where Light, water and Carbon Dioxide are processed into sugar (glucose) and oxygen
Photosynthesis Endothermic Reaction Sun Light Energy • Molecules go in and get zapped with energy. Carbon Dioxide molecules Chloroplasts Water molecules 1. Sun © Beadle, 2009
Photosynthesis Endothermic reaction Oxygen is a waste product that leaves the plant (plant poop!) • New molecules come out with stored energy 2. Plant Poo Energy Stored Inside (Potential Chemical) Glucose is used by the plant for it’s food Chloroplasts Without Photosynthesis, nothing else could exist on this planet! YEAH! Go hug a tree and say “thanks!”
Respiration (Like an Exothermic Reaction) Animal Cell © Beadle, 2009
Respiration (Exothermic Reaction) Respiration takes place in the animal cells Mitochondria (Human Cell) The “Mitochondria” is where chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy © Beadle, 2009
Respiration Similar to an Exothermic Reaction Glucose Molecule • Molecules from plants go in… 3. Energy be free in me! Oxygen Molecules Mitochondria (Human Cell) Oxygen and Glucose molecules react with each other in the mitochondria and form new molecules Our bodies are designed to unpack that energy stored in the sugar through a our bodies use the released energy series of exothermic reactions. to do stuff © Beadle, 2009
Respiration Exothermic Reaction • React and release the stored energy 3. Energy be free in me! Unpack Stored Energy (Released Energy) Mitochondria (Human Cell) © Beadle, 2009 Note: The process by which sugar is broken down is a lot more complicated than a just a simple reduction of sugar – You’ll learn how in your Biology class in High School.
1. Sun Light Energy Sequence 2. Chem Food/ Poo O 2 3. Mechanical Energy be free in me! Sun Unpack Stored Energy Released in Mechanical & Heat Energy Light Energy 1. Light comes from the sun 2. Plants convert that energy into chemical energy via sugar 3. We eat the sugar and convert that energy into heat & mechanical energy Chemical Energy Mechanical & Heat Energy
Now we send back our “waste products” to the plants! Every time we exhale, we send CO 2 and H 2 O back to plants Plants change the CO 2 and H 2 O into Glucose and O 2 that comes back to us
Why is this cycle so important? • Remember thethetragedy 4 Billion years ago, atmosphere of was the mostly CO , Which is GREAT for photosynthesis!!! Strombolites… 2 All the CO 2 in theare atmosphere eventually became O 2. Strombolites the earliest form of life we have Which means formaybe our Strombolite ever found… the firstwhat ones, as long asfriends…? 4 BILLION years ago!!! Moral: NOTHING CAN SURVIVE Some still survive today as you can see in this picture: IN IT’S OWN WASTE!!!! They are living bacteria that form rock like features when they grow together. It looks a bit like a coral reef They (like modern plants) did Photosynthesis Moral: NOTHING CAN SURVIVE But there were NO animals around yet…why is this a problem? IN IT’S OWN WASTE!!!! A: There were no critters to turn the O 2 back into CO 2, and the Strombolites died off!!! Poor things…
How long would you last…? Stuck in a sealed room with nothing but CO 2?
“Photosynthesis” and “Respiration” Cycle Sun See if you can fill in each blank in order starting at the sun! 1) ______ Energy comes from the sun (2 Chemicals) 5) _______ & _______ molecules are sent to animals (2 Chemicals) 9) ________ & ______ molecules are sent back to plants Can Do: PHOTOSYNTHESIS Can Do: RESPIRATION 2) Happens in: _______ cells 6)Happens in: ________ cells 3) Forms __________Energy 7) _______energy converts to 4) Makes: ______ and ______ molecules ________ & ____ energy 8) Makes: ________and _______
“Photosynthesis” and “Respiration” Cycle Sun See if you can fill in each blank in order starting at the sun! Light 1) ______ Energy comes from the sun (2 Chemicals) Sugar Oxygen 5) _______ & _______ molecules are sent to animals (2 Chemicals) Carbon ____ Dioxide & ______ Water 9) ____ molecules are sent back to plants Can Do: PHOTOSYNTHESIS Can Do: RESPIRATION 2) Happens in: _______ cells Plant 6)Happens in: ________ cells Animal Chemical 3) Forms __________Energy Chemical 7) _______energy converts to Sugar and ______ Oxygen molecules 4) Makes: _______________ Mechanical & ____ Heat energy Water 8) Makes: _______ Carbon ____and Dioxide