- Slides: 70
Photo: Mark Berger
Photo: Lori Greene
Photo: Mark Berger
Photo: Lori Greene
Photos: Hal Kelton
Photos: Lori Greene
Photo: Jeff Tock
Photo: Mark Berger
Photos: Mark Berger
“Fire protection-rated doors provide critical protection to protect exit enclosures and compartmentalize buildings and stop the spread of fire, smoke, and toxic gases. The proper installation and maintenance of these doors is a critical part of the building’s fire protection system. ” ~ Chip Carson, NFPA Journal – 02/08
Annual Inspection Requirements for Fire and Egress Door Assemblies Kim Salvo-Conlon, FDAI
Representing: ADAI – Association of Door Assembly Inspectors ◦ New England-based organization of Fire and Egress Door Assembly Inspectors DHI – The Door & Hardware Institute ◦ Professional association dedicated to the architectural openings industry. Door Security & Safety Foundation ◦ Foundation offering the opportunity to learn and experience the vital role that the architectural opening plays in life safety and security.
Fire Door Issues Photos: Eyal Bedrik, Lori Greene
Egress Door Issues Photos: Unknown, Mark Berger
History has shown us the importance of operational fire and egress doors. A warehouse fire in 1996 left only the part of the building protected by fire doors intact. Source: NFPA Journal
The Robert Moses Nature Center was protected by this fire door. Photos: Paul Martin History has shown us the importance of operational fire and egress doors.
History has shown us the importance of operational fire and egress doors. Inspections and resolution of deficiencies may have saved lives in these examples…
Sofa Super Store Charleston, SC – 2007 Fire doors which didn’t close properly allowed the fire to spread. 9 firefighter fatalities. AP Photo
Cook County Admin. Building Chicago, IL - 2003 Stairwell doors which did not unlock upon fire alarm trapped occupants in the smoke-filled stairwell. 6 fatalities. Photo: Matt Smeltzer
Rosepark Care Home Uddington, Scotland - 2004 Closers on many residents’ rooms had been disabled at the request of their families. 14 elderly residents died. Photo: Evening Times
Harvey’s Lake Board & Care Arlington, Washington - 1998 � Stair door held open with a “ 10 -pound block. ” � “Once in the interior of the building, the fire traveled through open doorways and the open door to the stairway, cutting off the primary exits from the building. ” - NFPA � 10 residents died. Photo: NFPA
Burlington Avenue Apartments Los Angeles, California - 1993 � “The flames spread quickly …left unchecked because a series of fire doors were either propped or nailed open. Most of the victims could not escape the second and third floor hallways, where they suffocated. ” – LA Times � “Manning said that in addition to the fire doors, a stairwell and door leading to the roof had been improperly left open, creating a chimney effect in the building that rapidly drew the smoke and fire upward to the third floor. ” – LA Times � 10 fatalities - 7 children, 3 women, 2 unborn babies
Epitome (E 2) Nightclub Chicago, Illinois - 2004 � “Nightclub stampede leaves 21 dead, hundreds trapped by locked doors. ” – Chicago Tribune � “Locked and blocked doors are a contributing factor. We can't explain how management or ownership would allow that. “ - Fire Commissioner James Joyce Photo: Chicago Tribune
Why does this happen? � Uninformed Product Selection � Poor Installation � Lack of Maintenance � Improper Field Modification � Abuse / Vandalism � Added Security Devices � Convenience Measures � Ignorance, indifference, budget cuts, or the elevation of security/convenience over life safety.
2010 “Unscientific” Survey Approx. 750 responses from the general public – not door hardware consultants, not code officials Theory: John Q Public doesn’t know much about fire or egress doors, which is why: ◦ ◦ Fire doors are propped open. Egress doors have multiple locks. Damaged hardware is not replaced. Doors are improperly modified.
Survey Question: What are some of the “rules” about fire doors? Answers: “Feel it before opening to see if it’s hot. ” “Don’t use it unless it’s an emergency. ” “They swing out and have a panic bar. ” “Exit single file and under control. ” “I'm SURE the government has certain specifications to help keep us ‘safe’. ” ◦ “You got me on this one. I have no idea. ” ◦ ◦ ◦
Survey Question: What are some of the “rules” about fire doors? Answers: ◦ About half of the respondents said either ◦ “Keep them closed – don’t prop them open, ” or ◦ “Do not lock or block. ” ◦ About a third of the respondents did not know any rules for fire doors.
Survey Question: How do you identify a fire door? Answers: ◦ ◦ ◦ Metal Heavier Thicker Sign – “Fire Door” Painted Red ◦ ◦ ◦ Panic Bar Exit Sign No Glass No Idea No Clue ◦ 10% of respondents answered that the door would have a label. ◦ If JQP can’t identify a fire door, how can they ensure that it’s code-compliant?
NFPA 80 - 2007 Standard for Fire Doors and Other Opening Protectives 2007 Edition Referenced by:
IFC - 2009 � 703. 2 Opening protectives. � Opening protectives shall be maintained in an operative condition in accordance with NFPA 80. � Fire doors and smoke barrier doors shall not be blocked or obstructed or otherwise made inoperable. � Fire door assemblies shall not be modified.
NFPA 101 - 2009 7. 2. 1. 15. 2 Fire-rated door assemblies shall be inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 80, Standard for Fire Doors and Other Opening Protectives.
NFPA 80 - 2007 5. 1. 1 Application. 5. 1. 1. 1 This chapter shall cover the care and maintenance of fire doors and fire windows. 5. 1. 1. 2 The requirements of this chapter shall apply to new and existing installations.
NFPA 80 - 2007 5. 1. 5 Repairs and Field Modifications. 5. 1 Repairs shall be made, and defects that could interfere with operation shall be corrected without delay.
NFPA 80 - 2007 Chapter 5 Care and Maintenance 5. 2* Inspections. 5. 2. 1* Fire door assemblies shall be inspected and tested not less than annually, and a written record of the inspection shall be signed and kept for inspection by the AHJ.
NFPA 80 - 2007 � Annex A � A. 5. 2 Fire doors, shutters, and windows are of no value unless they are properly maintained and closed or are able to close at the time of fire. A periodic inspection and maintenance program should be implemented and should be the responsibility of the property management. � A. 5. 2. 1 Hinges, catches, closers, latches, and stay rollers are especially subject to wear.
Who performs the inspection/testing? � 5. 2. 3 Functional Testing. � 5. 2. 3. 1 Functional testing of fire door and window assemblies shall be performed by individuals with knowledge and understanding of the operating components of the type of door being subject to testing. � 5. 2. 3. 2 Before testing, a visual inspection shall be performed to identify any damaged or missing parts that can create a hazard during testing or affect operation or resetting.
Who are these “individuals with knowledge and understanding”? � The Door & Hardware Institute offers a 4 -day course on Fire & Egress Door Inspection (prerequisites required) � Certification is available for successful class participants through Intertek’s Warnock Hersey mark.
Inspection Process Building owner or property manager engages a fire door assembly inspector or selfinspects. Fire door assembly inspector surveys and notes the condition of doors. Building owner/property manager is responsible for bringing doors into compliance. Documentation is available for the AHJ to review
E L P M A S Test/Inspection Documentation � Fire Exit and Tornado Drills � Emergency Lighting � Fire Alarm System � Fire Suppression System � Kitchen Hood Suppression System � Fire Extinguishers � Standpipes � Boiler � Fire & Egress Doors?
Graphic: Hal Kelton, Door. Data Solutions
Inspection Criteria 5. 2. 4. 1 Fire door assemblies shall be visually inspected from both sides to assess the overall condition of door assembly. 5. 2. 4. 2 As a minimum, the following items shall be verified:
(1) No open holes or breaks exist in surfaces of either the door or frame. Photo: Lori Greene Inspection Criteria
(2) Glazing, vision light frames, and glazing beads are intact and securely fastened in place, if so equipped. Photo: Kurt Roeper Inspection Criteria
Glass in doors and other “hazardous areas” is now required to be impact-resistant. This includes glass used in fire doors, which was once exempt from this requirement. Photo: Kurt Roeper Inspection Criteria
Inspection Criteria � (3) The door, frame, hinges, hardware, and noncombustible threshold are secured, aligned, and in working order with no visible signs of damage. Photo: Lori Greene
Inspection Criteria (4) No parts are missing or broken. Photo: Kurt Roeper
(5) Door clearances at the door edge to the frame, on the pull side of the door, do not exceed clearances listed in 4. 8. 4 and 6. 3. 1. Photo: Zeke Wolfskehl Photo: Hal Kelton Inspection Criteria
Head, Jambs, & Meeting Stiles: ◦ Wood Doors – 1/8” maximum ◦ Hollow Metal Doors – 1/8” +/- 1/16” Bottom of Door to Floor or Threshold ◦ ¾” maximum Photo: Zeke Wolfskehl Photo: Hal Kelton Inspection Criteria
Inspection Criteria (6) The self-closing device is operational, that is, the active door completely closes when operated from the full open position. Photos: Unknown
Inspection Criteria (7) If a coordinator is installed, the inactive leaf closes before active leaf. Photo: Lori Greene
(8) Latching hardware operates and secures the door when it is in the closed position. Photo: Lori Greene Photo: Paul Goldense Inspection Criteria
(9) Auxiliary hardware items that interfere or prohibit operation are not installed on the door or frame. Photo: Lori Greene Photo: Brendan Daley Inspection Criteria
Photos: Mark Berger The fire extinguishers are inspected…how about the doors? ?
Photo: Mark Berger The fire extinguishers are inspected…how about the doors? ?
(10) No field modifications to the door assembly have been performed that void the label. Photo: Unknown Inspection Criteria
Maximum hole size is 1” diameter, with the exception of cylinder holes. Photo: Unknown Inspection Criteria
Inspection Criteria (11) Gasketing and edge seals, where required, are inspected to verify their presence and integrity. Photo: Unknown
Performance-Based Option 5. 2. 2 Performance-Based Option 5. 2. 2. 1 As an alternate means of compliance with 5. 2. 1, subject to the AHJ, fire door assemblies shall be permitted to be inspected, tested, and maintained under a written performance-based program.
Performance-Based Option 5. 2. 2. 2 Goals established under a performance-based program shall provide assurance that the fire door assembly will perform its intended function when exposed to fire conditions. � 5. 2. 2. 3 Technical justification for inspection, testing, and maintenance intervals shall be documented. � Annex J includes guidelines �
Westfield State University >3, 000 fire-rated and/or egress doors University employee passed the DHI course and exam to become an FDAI Working on a plan with their local AHJ
NFPA 105 - 2007 � � � � 5. 2. 1* Inspections. 5. 2. 1. 1 Smoke door assemblies shall be inspected annually. 5. 2. 1. 2 Doors shall be operated to confirm full closure. 5. 2. 1. 3 Hardware and gaskets shall be inspected annually, and any parts found to be damaged or inoperative shall be replaced. 5. 2. 1. 4 Tin clad and Kalamein doors shall be inspected regularly for dry rot. 5. 2. 1. 5 A written record shall be maintained and shall be made available to the authority having jurisdiction. 5. 2. 1. 6 Records shall be maintained for not less than 3 years.
NFPA 101 – 2009 � New ◦ ◦ ◦ & Existing Assembly Educational Day Care Detention & Correctional Residential Board & Care � Doors which are required to swing in the direction of egress. � Annual inspection with written record.
NFPA 101 – 2009 (1) Floor space on both sides of the openings is clear of obstructions, and door leaves open fully and close freely. � (2) Forces required to set door leaves in motion and move to the fully open position do not exceed the requirements in 7. 2. 1. 4. 5. � (3) Latching and locking devices comply with 7. 2. 1. 5. � (4) Releasing hardware devices are installed in accordance with 7. 2. 1. 5. 9. 1. � (5) Door leaves of paired openings are installed in accordance with 7. 2. 1. 5. 10. �
NFPA 101 – 2009 � � � (6) Door closers are adjusted properly to control the closing speed of door leaves in accordance with accessibility requirements. (7) Projection of door leaves into the path of egress does not exceed the encroachment permitted by 7. 2. 1. 4. 3. (8) Powered door openings operate in accordance with 7. 2. 1. 9. (9) Required signage intact and legible. (10) Door openings with special locking arrangements function in accordance with 7. 2. 1. 6. (11) Security devices that impede egress are not installed on openings, as required by 7. 2. 1. 5. 11.
Summary Inspection and documentation is an annual requirement. Qualified inspectors ensure adherence to proper procedures. Documentation must be maintained for review by the AHJ.
Resources: ADAI – Association of Door Assembly Inspectors ◦ www. doorinspectors. org DHI – The Door & Hardware Institute ◦ www. dhi. org Door Security & Safety Foundation ◦ www. doorsecuritysafety. org NFPA – National Fire Protection Association ◦ www. nfpa. org