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Photo credit: Stan Navratil B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. BORLAND VALLEY PRESCRIPTION MAY

Photo credit: Stan Navratil B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. BORLAND VALLEY PRESCRIPTION MAY 2018 PUBLIC MEETING Presenter: Bruce Blackwell

Fuel Management 2 What Fuel Management is: Fuel management focuses on reducing or controlling

Fuel Management 2 What Fuel Management is: Fuel management focuses on reducing or controlling fire behaviour, and fire effects, and cost of suppression. � Historically it was primarily concerned with fire protection. � More recent recognition of the importance of fire as an ecological process has led to increased use of prescribed fire not only as a fire suppression tool but as an ecosystem restoration tool. It is useful in altering fire frequency and intensity.

Fuel Management 3 Why We Conduct Fuel Management: Multiple goals: 1. Protect public health

Fuel Management 3 Why We Conduct Fuel Management: Multiple goals: 1. Protect public health and safety or values at risk, 2. Fire behaviour reduction, 3. Forest health – treatment of pine beetle or killed forest adjacent to communities, 4. Generate revenue – bio-energy Plants, or commercial thin, 5. Ecosystem restoration. Photo by B. A. Blackwell & Associates

Fuel Management 4 Where We Practice Fuel Management: 1) Ecosystems appropriate for restoration 2)

Fuel Management 4 Where We Practice Fuel Management: 1) Ecosystems appropriate for restoration 2) Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) - WUI is the interface between forest and communities. For example: - Large cities with a matrix of vegetated areas, - Communities surrounded by forest, - Low density housing like remote homes (rural locations) or recreational property. 3) High hazard fuel types adjacent to valuable or critical infrastructure.

Interface Fire Issues Interface 5 Interface defined… “Forest meets Community”

Interface Fire Issues Interface 5 Interface defined… “Forest meets Community”

Interface Fire Issues 6 How does fire threaten the interface? Wildland Fire Threat… Community

Interface Fire Issues 6 How does fire threaten the interface? Wildland Fire Threat… Community

Interface Fire Issues 7 How does fire threaten the interface? Wildland Fire Threat… Community

Interface Fire Issues 7 How does fire threaten the interface? Wildland Fire Threat… Community

Fuel Treatments Do Not Address Long Distance Spotting 8

Fuel Treatments Do Not Address Long Distance Spotting 8

Fuel Management Prescription strategies 9 The prescription generally applies the following forestry activities to

Fuel Management Prescription strategies 9 The prescription generally applies the following forestry activities to reduce wildfire hazard: � Tree crown separation (tree thinning), � Reduction of ladder fuels (tree pruning and tree thinning), � Reduction of large, medium and fine fuels, � Retention of tree species with lower flammability (deciduous), and � Removal of danger and unhealthy trees.

Vegetation management 10

Vegetation management 10

Operation Fuel Treatment Planning 11 Prioritization and selection of treatment units for implementation, Budgeting

Operation Fuel Treatment Planning 11 Prioritization and selection of treatment units for implementation, Budgeting of costs of specific activities per hectare that are prescribed within the FMP, Methods for cost reduction may include: pile burning, merchantable timber sales, competitive tender process. Application and approval by FESBC, Public engagement before implementation.

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Analysis of Other Values B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. 13 The constraints analysis

Analysis of Other Values B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. 13 The constraints analysis revealed several key considerations: Forest Management for Mule deer winter range (MDWR) Specifically related to basal area (BA) requirements for residual stands (≥ 12. 5 cm dbh and ≥ 37. 5 cm dbh) � Management of existing recreational trails � Old Growth Management Areas (OGMAs) � Species at risk: Blue listed Bobolink � Range tenures and Trapline licenses � Archeological resources and cultural heritage �

Forest Management Objectives B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. 14 WUI Threat Reduction (high

Forest Management Objectives B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. 14 WUI Threat Reduction (high to moderate) 1) � Thinning-from-below to attain a target residual stem count of 400 stems per hectare (sph). This approach will ensure crown separation, increase in height to live crown and a reduction in surface fuels. Protection of residential homes takes precedence here. Mule Deer Habitat Restoration 2) � Target residual stem count (600 sph) was derived using considerations for BA requirements as dictated by the Government Actions Regulation (GAR) order and its corresponding General Wildlife Measures (GWMs). A thorough review of current literature and guideline documents regarding MDWR management was undertaken. Primary Fuel Break 3) � The fundamental goal of this objective is to confine potential fires to the ground level and abstain them from crowning. Although a minimum of 100 m is required for a primary fuel break, a width of 300 m is recommended/more desirable. In this case, a vertical separation of the demonstration units is recommended within the primary fuel break (i. e. , north to south).

Option #1 WUI Mule Deer Habitat Restoration Ecosystem Rehabilitation

Option #1 WUI Mule Deer Habitat Restoration Ecosystem Rehabilitation

WUI Treatment Units 16 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd.

WUI Treatment Units 16 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd.

WUI Treatment Units 17 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. Treatment Units identified in

WUI Treatment Units 17 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. Treatment Units identified in this category: TU 1 A (Pigeon East), TU 1 B (Pigeon West), and TU 1 C (Redeau Finger) TU 1 A and B are to be managed under moderate stand structure objectives for Mule Deer Winter Range, while TU 1 C is to be managed under high stand structure objectives. Principles and Objectives for Classification � Primary consideration: � Prioritization of fire threat reduction in units closest to residential homes ( fire threat) Secondary considerations: Mule Deer Habitat Restoration ( short-term, but long-term) Ecosystem rehabilitation ( - neutral) Timber supply ( long-term)

Mule Deer Habitat Restoration Units 18 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd.

Mule Deer Habitat Restoration Units 18 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd.

Mule Deer Habitat Restoration Units 19 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. Treatment Units

Mule Deer Habitat Restoration Units 19 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. Treatment Units identified in this category: TU 2 A (Redeau North), TU 3 B (Redeau East Loop), and TU 2 C A (Redeau Central North). These units are to be managed for high stand structure objectives for Mule Deer Winter Range. Principles and Objectives for Classification � Primary considerations: � Mule deer Habitat Restoration ( long-term) Fire threat – WUI Reduction ( ) Secondary considerations: Ecosystem rehabilitation ( - neutral) Timber supply ( - neutral)

Primary Fuel Break Units 20 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd.

Primary Fuel Break Units 20 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd.

Primary Fuel Break Units 21 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. Treatment Units identified

Primary Fuel Break Units 21 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. Treatment Units identified in this category: TU 2 B (Redeau South Central), TU 2 C B (Redeau Central), and TU 3 A (Redeau Southeast). These units are to be managed for high stand structure objectives for Mule Deer Winter Range. Principles and Objectives for Classification � Primary considerations: Fire threat – Reduction ( ) � Secondary considerations: Mule Deer Habitat Restoration ( long-term) Timber supply ( - neutral)

Treatment Unit 1 A – Pigeon East 22 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd.

Treatment Unit 1 A – Pigeon East 22 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. Treatment Unit TU 1 A Name Fuel Type Pigeon C 3/M 2 East Stand Age (years) 130 -150 Wildfire Behaviour Threat Class Merch Basal Area (m 2/ha) Merch Volume (m 3/ha) Total Stems per hectare (sph) Pre Post Treatment Treatment High Moderate 23 21 196 182 2450 400 TU 1 A Figure 1. Representative photos for TU 1 A.

Treatment Unit 1 A – Pigeon East 23 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd.

Treatment Unit 1 A – Pigeon East 23 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. TU 1 A - Merch Stems/ha Residual BA = 22 m 2/ha, D. lim = 60 cm, q=1. 25 vs. q=1. 35 Stems per Hectare (sph) 1600 Residual BDq q=1. 35 Residual BDq q=1. 25 1200 Prescribed Dead Pl 800 Sx Fd 400 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 Diameter Class Midpoint (cm) Figure 2. Target stand versus prescribed stand for TU 1 A. 70 80 90 100

Treatment Unit 1 B – Pigeon West 24 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd.

Treatment Unit 1 B – Pigeon West 24 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. Treatment Unit Name Fuel Type Stand Age (years) TU 1 B Pigeon West C 3 130 -150 Wildfire Behaviour Merch Basal Area Total Stems per hectare Merch Volume (m 3/ha) 2 Threat Class (m /ha) (sph) Pre Post Treatment Treatment High Moderate 47 24 327 166 TU 1 B Figure 3. Representative photos for Treatment Unit (TU) 1 B. 2801 400

Treatment Unit 1 B – Pigeon West 25 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd.

Treatment Unit 1 B – Pigeon West 25 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. TU 1 B - Merch Stems/ha Residual BA = 22 m 2/ha, D. lim = 60 cm, q=1. 25 vs 1. 35 Stems per Hectare (sph) 1000 Prescribed 800 Residual BDq q=1. 25 Residual BDq q=1. 35 Dead 600 Pl 400 Sx 200 Fd 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 Diameter Class Midpoint (cm) Figure 4. Target stand versus prescribed stand for TU 1 B. 70 80 90 100

Treatment Unit 1 C – Redeau Finger 26 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd.

Treatment Unit 1 C – Redeau Finger 26 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. Treatment Unit TU 1 C Name Fuel Type Stand Age (years) Redeau Finger C 7 100 -115 Wildfire Behaviour Merch Basal Area Total Stems per hectare Merch Volume (m 3/ha) Threat Class (m 2/ha) (sph) Pre Post Treatment Treatment High Moderate 50 36 368 TU 1 C Figure 5. Representative photos for Treatment Unit 1 C. 263 3709 400

Treatment Unit 1 C – Redeau Finger 27 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd.

Treatment Unit 1 C – Redeau Finger 27 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. TU 1 C - Merch Stems/ha Residual BA = 29 m 2/ha, D. lim = 70 cm, q=1. 20 vs 1. 35 Stems per Hectare (sph) 2500 Residual BDq q=1. 35 2000 Residual BDq q=1. 2 Prescribed 1500 Dead 1000 Pl Sx 500 Fd 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 Diameter Class Midpoint (cm) Figure 6. Target stand versus prescribed stand for TU 1 C. 70 80 90 100

Treatment Unit 2 A – Redeau North 28 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd.

Treatment Unit 2 A – Redeau North 28 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. Treatment Unit TU 2 A Name Fuel Type Stand Age (years) Redeau North C 3 60 (East) - 110 (West) Wildfire Behaviour Merch Basal Area Merch Volume Total Stems per Threat Class (m 2/ha) (m 3/ha) hectare (sph) Pre. Post. Treatment Treatment High Moderate 23 23 164 4542 TU 2 A Figure 7. Representative photos for Treatment Unit (TU) 2 A. 600

Treatment Unit 2 A – Redeau North B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. TU

Treatment Unit 2 A – Redeau North B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. TU 2 A - Merch Stems/ha Residual BA = 29 m 2/ha, D. lim = 70 cm, q=1. 20 vs 1. 35 2500 Stems per Hectare (sph) 29 Prescribed 2000 Residual BDq q=1. 35 Residual BDq q=1. 2 1500 Dead Pl 1000 Sx 500 Fd 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 Diameter Class Midpoint (cm) Figure 8. Target stand versus prescribed stand for TU 2 A. 70 80 90 100

Treatment Unit 2 C A – Redeau Central North 30 B. A. Blackwell &

Treatment Unit 2 C A – Redeau Central North 30 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. Treatment Unit TU 2 C A Name Fuel Type Redeau Central C 7 North thinned Stand Age (years) 100 -130 Wildfire Behaviour Merch Basal Area Merch Volume Total Stems per Threat Class (m 2/ha) (m 3/ha) hectare (sph) Pre. Post. Treatment Treatment High Moderate Figure 11. Representative photos for Treatment Unit (TU) 2 C A. 23 20 117 101 2811 TU 2 C A 600

Treatment Unit 2 C A – Redeau Central North 31 B. A. Blackwell &

Treatment Unit 2 C A – Redeau Central North 31 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. TU 2 C A - Merch Stems/ha Residual BA = 29 m 2/ha, D. lim = 70 cm, q=1. 2 vs. q=1. 35 Stems per Hectare (sph) 800 600 Residual BDq q=1. 35 Residual BDq q=1. 2 Prescribed 400 Dead Pl 200 Sx Fd 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 Diameter Class Midpoint (cm) Figure 12. Target stand versus prescribed stand for TU 2 C A. 70 80 90 100

Treatment Unit 3 B – Redeau East Loop 32 B. A. Blackwell & Associates

Treatment Unit 3 B – Redeau East Loop 32 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. Treatment Unit TU 3 B Name Fuel Type Stand Age (years) Redeau East Loop C 3 115 -140 Wildfire Behaviour Merch Basal Area Merch Volume Total Stems per Threat Class (m 2/ha) (m 3/ha) hectare (sph) Pre. Post. Treatment Treatment High Moderate 22 15 131 91 3354 600 TU 3 B Figure 15. Representative photos for Treatment Unit (TU) 3 B.

Treatment Unit 3 B – Redeau East Loop 33 B. A. Blackwell & Associates

Treatment Unit 3 B – Redeau East Loop 33 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. TU 3 B - Merch Stems/ha Residual BA = 29 m 2/ha, D. lim = 70 cm, q=1. 2 vs q=1. 35 Stems per Hectare (sph) 1600 Residual BDq q=1. 35 Residual BDq q=1. 2 1200 Prescribed Dead 800 Pl Sx 400 Fd 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 Diameter Class Midpoint (cm) Figure 16. Target stand versus prescribed stand for TU 3 B. 70 80 90 100

Treatment Unit 2 B – Redeau South Central 34 B. A. Blackwell & Associates

Treatment Unit 2 B – Redeau South Central 34 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. Treatment Unit TU 2 B Name Fuel Type Redeau South C 3/C 7 Central Stand Age (years) 110 (West) 150 (East) Wildfire Behaviour Merch Basal Area Merch Volume Total Stems per Threat Class (m 2/ha) (m 3/ha) hectare (sph) Pre. Post. Treatment Treatment High Moderate 33 20 259 158 3421 TU 2 B Figure 9. Representative photos for Treatment Unit (TU) 2 B. 400

Treatment Unit 2 B – Redeau South Central B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd.

Treatment Unit 2 B – Redeau South Central B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. TU 2 B - Merch Stems/ha Residual BA = 29 m 2/ha, D. lim = 70 cm, q=1. 20 vs 1. 35 1600 Residual BDq q=1. 35 Stems per Hectare (sph) 35 1200 Residual BDq q=1. 2 Prescribed 800 Dead Pl Sx 400 Fd 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 Diameter Class Midpoint (cm) Figure 10. Target stand versus prescribed stand for TU 2 B. 70 80 90 100

Treatment Unit 2 C B – Redeau Central 36 B. A. Blackwell & Associates

Treatment Unit 2 C B – Redeau Central 36 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. Treatment Unit TU 2 C B Name Fuel Type Stand Age (years) Redeau Central C 7 thinned 100 -130 Wildfire Behaviour Merch Basal Area Merch Volume Total Stems per Threat Class (m 2/ha) (m 3/ha) hectare (sph) Pre. Post. Treatment Treatment High Moderate 40 34 245 211 3054 TU 2 C B Figure 11. Representative photos for Treatment Unit (TU) 2 C B. 600

Treatment Unit 2 C B– Redeau Central 37 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd.

Treatment Unit 2 C B– Redeau Central 37 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. TU 2 C B - Merch Stems/ha Residual BA = 29 m 2/ha, D. lim = 70 cm, q=1. 2 vs. q=1. 35 Stems per Hectare (sph) 1600 Residual BDq q=1. 35 Residual BDq q=1. 2 Prescribed 1200 Dead Pl 800 Sx Fd 400 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 Diameter Class Midpoint (cm) Figure 12. Target stand versus prescribed stand for TU 2 C B. 70 80 90 100

Treatment Unit 3 A – Redeau Southeast 38 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd.

Treatment Unit 3 A – Redeau Southeast 38 B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. Treatment Unit TU 3 A Name Fuel Type Stand Age (years) Redeau Southeast C 3 80 Wildfire Behaviour Merch Basal Area Merch Volume Total Stems per Threat Class (m 2/ha) (m 3/ha) hectare (sph) Pre. Post. Treatment Treatment High Moderate 13 9 62 44 4420 500 TU 3 A Figure 13. Representative photos for Treatment Unit (TU) 3 A.

Treatment Unit 3 A – Redeau Southeast B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. TU

Treatment Unit 3 A – Redeau Southeast B. A. Blackwell & Associates Ltd. TU 3 A - Merch Stems/ha Residual BA = 29 m 2/ha, D. lim = 70 cm, q=1. 2 vs q=1. 35 2000 Stems per Hectare (sph) 39 Residual BDq q=1. 35 1600 Residual BDq q=1. 2 Prescribed 1200 Dead 800 Pl Sx 400 Fd 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 Diameter Class Midpoint (cm) Figure 14. Target stand versus prescribed stand for TU 3 A. 70 80 90 100

40 Thank you! Questions? www. for. gov. bc. ca/ftp/DCC/external/publish/Borland Mitigation and Wildlife Enhancement Project/

40 Thank you! Questions? www. for. gov. bc. ca/ftp/DCC/external/publish/Borland Mitigation and Wildlife Enhancement Project/