philia love sophia wisdom philosophy Teacher provides the

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φιλοσοφία philia love + sophia wisdom philosophy

φιλοσοφία philia love + sophia wisdom philosophy

Teacher provides the material. . . chooses and directs the questions. . . and

Teacher provides the material. . . chooses and directs the questions. . . and often has a definitive answer in mind. The child answers the question hoping that they have got the teacher’s answer.

Community of Enquiry

Community of Enquiry

The teacher provides the stimulus. The children choose the question, which has competing reasonable

The teacher provides the stimulus. The children choose the question, which has competing reasonable answers. The children contribute to the answer, listening to others, reflecting on all the contributions and directing their thoughts to the enquiry not the teacher.

Stimulus Copyright Jason Buckley 2011 www. thephilosophyman. com

Stimulus Copyright Jason Buckley 2011 www. thephilosophyman. com

You need to think of questions that. . . make you think. . invite

You need to think of questions that. . . make you think. . invite different opinions. . aren’t just a matter of taste/likes/dislikes. . are not questions that science could answer. . couldn’t be answered using Google. . make for an interesting, reasoned discussion. . are questions that you care about.

You need to think of questions that. . . include more people, not just

You need to think of questions that. . . include more people, not just the ones in the story …let you think about things you know instead of just what is in the story

Is appearance everything? When should you give up? Does size matter? What is the

Is appearance everything? When should you give up? Does size matter? What is the point of fighting a battle you know you can’t win? Should you look up or down on your enemies? Is any obstacle in life too big to overcome? Can move mountains?

Philosophy for Children The central principle, as expressed by Matthew Lipman, its founder, is

Philosophy for Children The central principle, as expressed by Matthew Lipman, its founder, is that teachers establish: ‘an intellectually provocative environment in which children can discuss in a free and open fashion themes that interest them. ’ This environment—the community of enquiry—is a safe forum for intellectual risk taking but is also ‘impelled by the spirit of enquiry and guided by logical and philosophical considerations’ (Matthew Lipman Philosophy goes to School, 1988, p 128).

Thinkers’ Games

Thinkers’ Games

Think Commit Justify Reflect Structure for games that encourage a community of enquiry to

Think Commit Justify Reflect Structure for games that encourage a community of enquiry to develop.

Think Commit Justify Reflect about a question that has competing reasonable answers

Think Commit Justify Reflect about a question that has competing reasonable answers

Think Commit Justify Reflect publicly to an answer by moving yourself or stuff

Think Commit Justify Reflect publicly to an answer by moving yourself or stuff

Think Commit Justify Reflect your answer using your best reasons

Think Commit Justify Reflect your answer using your best reasons

Think Commit Justify Reflect on what you have heard and show if you have

Think Commit Justify Reflect on what you have heard and show if you have changed your mind

A conceptual education. P 4 Cers think about concepts that are common (we share

A conceptual education. P 4 Cers think about concepts that are common (we share them) central (we care about them) contestable (we can disagree about them)

Happiness Friendship Power Success Freedom Needs Wisdom Courage Beauty most. . . least important

Happiness Friendship Power Success Freedom Needs Wisdom Courage Beauty most. . . least important ingredient best. . . least good example

Which is the most important thing about a friend? a. You can trust them.

Which is the most important thing about a friend? a. You can trust them. b. You like the same things. c. They spend time with you. d. Something else. Why?

Which is the most important thing about a king or queen? a. They can

Which is the most important thing about a king or queen? a. They can win wars. b. Their people love them. c. Their people fear them. d. Something else. Why?

Which is the most important thing about a story? a. The characters. b. What

Which is the most important thing about a story? a. The characters. b. What happens. c. The way it ends. d. Something else. Why?

What do all languages have to have? a. Words. b. Sounds. c. Meanings. d.

What do all languages have to have? a. Words. b. Sounds. c. Meanings. d. Something else. Why?

Which of these makes someone a leader? a. Personality. b. Power. c. Followers. d.

Which of these makes someone a leader? a. Personality. b. Power. c. Followers. d. Something else. Why?

Vote With Your Feet Philosopher’s Fruit Salad Sort Yourselves Out Concept Lines Which and

Vote With Your Feet Philosopher’s Fruit Salad Sort Yourselves Out Concept Lines Which and Why? The Dividing Line

Insert any picture of interest. • I see • I feel • I think

Insert any picture of interest. • I see • I feel • I think • I wonder • My Question Searching concepts on google images is a good start.

Enquiry Chauffeur

Enquiry Chauffeur

Traffic • Ping-pong • Boys to girls to boys • Assume speaking: five in

Traffic • Ping-pong • Boys to girls to boys • Assume speaking: five in a row

Braking • • 3 lives/ famous last words No girls (or boys) allowed Agree/disagree…

Braking • • 3 lives/ famous last words No girls (or boys) allowed Agree/disagree… because Use a conch

Accelerating • Back to pairs, groups • Get physical • Be provocative

Accelerating • Back to pairs, groups • Get physical • Be provocative

The role of the facilitator • A listener • Learning is collaborative not directed

The role of the facilitator • A listener • Learning is collaborative not directed • Children are experts of their own experience • Encouraging the building of ideas by ‘connecting’ contributions

The role of the facilitator • A guide: • Following the enquiry and putting

The role of the facilitator • A guide: • Following the enquiry and putting your own interest on hold • Making strategic decisions to maintain enquiry: learning is not directed but it’s not directionless either!

The role of the facilitator • A guardian: • Guarding emotionally (without being over

The role of the facilitator • A guardian: • Guarding emotionally (without being over protective) • Guarding intellectually (don’t let the enquiry degenerate into sloppy thinking, anecdote swapping, therapy or a confessional session) • Sharing responsibility

The role of the facilitator • A co-enquirer: • Being prepared to change your

The role of the facilitator • A co-enquirer: • Being prepared to change your mind and move into the unknown • You do not have a definitive answer either

Are they thinking? Are they thinking for themselves? (Roger Sutcliffe)

Are they thinking? Are they thinking for themselves? (Roger Sutcliffe)

Encouraging philosophical moves Reasoning Justifying Evidence Uncertainty Principles Defining Implications Contradiction Consequences Generalising www.

Encouraging philosophical moves Reasoning Justifying Evidence Uncertainty Principles Defining Implications Contradiction Consequences Generalising www. outspark. org. uk Speculating Assumptions Clarification Consistency Particularising

Encouraging philosophical moves Reasoning Justifying Evidence Uncertainty Principles Defining Implications Contradiction Consequences Generalising Speculating

Encouraging philosophical moves Reasoning Justifying Evidence Uncertainty Principles Defining Implications Contradiction Consequences Generalising Speculating Assumptions Clarification Consistency Particularising Requesting– to prompt moves Pondering – showing your own moves Recognising – when pupils make moves Probing – pushing an individual to make a move www. outspark. org. uk

This is the Chinese character for “listen”. It has five elements. What do you

This is the Chinese character for “listen”. It has five elements. What do you think they mean?

ear

ear

you ear

you ear

you ear eyes

you ear eyes

you ear eyes undivided attention

you ear eyes undivided attention

you ear eyes undivided attention heart

you ear eyes undivided attention heart

Who does the talking? 59% 41% Before P 4 C

Who does the talking? 59% 41% Before P 4 C

Who does the talking? 66% 34% After P 4 C

Who does the talking? 66% 34% After P 4 C

Ann Sharp ‘. . an atmosphere of trust in which each person feels valued

Ann Sharp ‘. . an atmosphere of trust in which each person feels valued and respected. ’ ‘To be taken seriously does not manifest itself in blanket acceptance of each and every opinion that we voice. ’ ‘P 4 C aims… to bring about the transformation of persons into more reasonable individuals committed to the creation of a reasonable world. ’

TOPIC TOYS

TOPIC TOYS

TOPIC > CONCEPTS Child/grown up Girls/boys Outgrowing toys Play/work Favourite toys Imagination /imitation TOYS

TOPIC > CONCEPTS Child/grown up Girls/boys Outgrowing toys Play/work Favourite toys Imagination /imitation TOYS Living/nonliving Traditional /modern

TOPIC > CONCEPTS > QUESTIONS Why do children have more toys? What makes something

TOPIC > CONCEPTS > QUESTIONS Why do children have more toys? What makes something “grown up”? Can you love a toy? Why do we pretend? Should some toys be just for girls? Would it be dull to play forever? What can count as a toy? Are toys better now than 100 years ago?

TOPIC > CONCEPTS > QUESTIONS > ACTIVITIES Home/school dialogue about toys Bring in a

TOPIC > CONCEPTS > QUESTIONS > ACTIVITIES Home/school dialogue about toys Bring in a new and a “too old for” toy. Can you love a toy? Story of a boy who couldn’t pretend Story of twins with swapped toys “How To Live Forever” In or Out Game How many ways can you play with…

TOPIC > CONCEPTS > QUESTIONS > ACTIVITIES > SKILLS Giving reasons, disagreeing agreeably Examples,

TOPIC > CONCEPTS > QUESTIONS > ACTIVITIES > SKILLS Giving reasons, disagreeing agreeably Examples, similarities Types of love – making distinctions Empathetic thinking Imagining alternatives Challenging assumptions Defining, categorising Creativity/ brainstorming

TOPIC > CONCEPTS > QUESTIONS > ACTIVITIES > SKILLS > MISSING? Giving reasons, disagreeing

TOPIC > CONCEPTS > QUESTIONS > ACTIVITIES > SKILLS > MISSING? Giving reasons, disagreeing agreeably Examples, similarities Types of love – making distinctions Questioning> Question the teddy bear Empathetic thinking Imagining alternatives Challenging assumptions Defining, categorising Creativity/ brainstorming

TOPIC > CONCEPTS > QUESTIONS > ACTIVITIES > SKILLS > MISSING? > BIG QUESTION

TOPIC > CONCEPTS > QUESTIONS > ACTIVITIES > SKILLS > MISSING? > BIG QUESTION Giving reasons, disagreeing agreeably Examples, similarities Defining, categorising Types of love – making distinctions Questioning> Question the teddy bear Imagining alternatives Challenging assumptions Empathetic thinking Creativity/ brainstorming WHAT MAKES A GOOD TOY?

Copyright in the presentation and content not otherwise attributed is Jason Buckley 2011, www.

Copyright in the presentation and content not otherwise attributed is Jason Buckley 2011, www. thephilosophyman. com You are very welcome to use this in your own training of staff in aspects of P 4 C, but please mention that you got it on a SAPERE training course, and encourage your listeners to pursue further training if they can. www. sapere. org. uk