- Slides: 23
PERSUASIVE WRITING Elaboration Techniques: Persuasive Word Choice Expert Testimony
EXPOSITORY VS. PERSUASIVE WRITING Expository Writing Persuasive Writing v Writing to Explain v Writing to Convince v Uses specific words and phrases that help the reader understand ideas. v Uses specific words, phrases, and persuasive strategies that urge or encourage to support a position. v Shows care about the topic with voice and language appropriate for the audience. v Shows commitment to position with voice and language appropriate for the audience. v Is elaborated using reasons, wellchosen and specific details, examples, and/or anecdotes to support ideas. v Is elaborated by using reasons, wellchosen and specific details, examples, anecdotes, facts, and/or statistics as evidence to support arguments. Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Modified 10/16/08
EXPOSITORY WRITING EXAMPLE Expository writing is explaining. In my time capsule I also think that I would want to include my I-Pod. When my great-grandchildren opened the box and found it, they might think it was really old-fashioned (like a record player!), but they’d like to hear my favorite music. I bet that they would laugh at some of the songs, but I can also picture them listening to the “old music” over and over again because it would be so different from their own.
PERSUASIVE WRITING EXAMPLE Persuasive writing is convincing. Some late work counts as 70% credit, giving kids a Cwhich is passing. Some kids are happy because they think a C- is a good grade. How can we allow students to turn in all of their work late but still have a passing grade? The kids that have C-’s don’t care about their work because even if they turn it in late, they can still get a passing grade. These kids have sort of twisted the grading system to benefit themselves. This can no longer be allowed. Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved
PERSUASION IS USED FOR MANY REASONS… To Support a Cause can save our dance program. v Urge People to Action Take a few hours out of your time and support your candidate by waving signs on the local corner. v Make a Change The students at Nisqually should have a wider variety of lunch options. Prove Something Wrong Despite what many people believe, giving students access to vending machines at lunch is not a bad thing. v v v Stir Up Sympathy With your support and donations we Without the support of people in our community, many kids will go without lunch during the break.
AND ALSO… v Create Interest v Get People to Agree with You If enough students participate in the fund raiser we will be able to sponsor the best Friday Activity Nights ever. My idea to stock better choices of food in the vending machines at lunch will help students become more healthy.
SO…HOW DO I BEGIN?
PERSUASIVE WORD CHOICE
PERSUASIVE LANGUAGE Using persuasive language means choosing just the right words and phrases to urge or compel the reader to support the position of the writer. � Precise words trigger strong feelings. Seizes vs. takes Snarls vs. says Bewildered vs. confused � Repeated words or phrases for emphasis I have a dream…(Martin Luther King, Jr. ) � Different connotations Mean or strict Died or passed away Used or pre-owned Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Modified 10/08.
THE POWER OF WORDS Word choice is very important when writing a persuasive piece. The stronger the word you choose, the more power you have to change someone’s opinions or ideas. Look at the word following word groupings and discuss the differences in the feeling, or connotation, that comes from each word. v Which words have positive, neutral, or negative connotations. v Group, crowd, mob v Insinuate, suggest, imply v Thin, skinny, scrawny v Gentle, benign, harmless v Finicky, selective, picky v As a class, create your own groupings of words with similar meanings, but varying connotations. v Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Modified 10/08.
POWERFUL WORDS: Take a moment to look over the following list of persuasive words. approved authentic authority critical discover guarantee memorable must new prohibited proven quality qualified results significant truth unquestionable worthwhile What words would you add to this list?
INEFFECTIVE LANGUAGE Teachers should let students turn in late work at XYZ School. Students are busy and some may not have time to get work done every night. Students know that getting work finished is important, but everyone knows they need a break sometimes. Students who have sports and music practice really need extra time because they are gone a lot doing those things. Note the highlighted words in this section. How could you replace them and make each more powerful?
POWERFUL WORDS It is absolutely critical that teachers reconsider the “No Late Work” policy at XYZ School. Life can become very hectic and difficult for a significant number of middle school students, which can result in them not getting homework completed on time. Students understand that completing work is critical in order to learn new skills, yet studies have proven that allowing students flexibility in due dates is necessary. Students who are involved in sports and music simply must have more time in order to complete quality work after long practices.
PERSUASIVE WORD CHOICE PRACTICE v Read Letter to Principal Scaddilybob. v Take out a highlighter pen & mark the persuasive words and phrases found in the letter. v Compare what you highlighted with a person sitting near you. v What is the purpose of this writing? v Who is the audience? v What does the writer want (position)?
YOUR TURN! PERSUASIVE WORD CHOICE APPLICATION As a promotional activity, a local foundation is giving away an all-expense paid trip to a class of students to spend two days and one night at the Great Wolf Lodge, near Chehalis. Write a letter persuading this foundation that your class deserves the gift. v Select and use the precise language that would be the most persuasive for this audience. v Underline specific words or phrases that you think are the most persuasive for your audience. v
THINK, PARTNER, SHARE v What activities have you used in the classroom in the past to teach this strategy? v How might you apply this strategy in your own classroom in the next two weeks? v Do you have any new ideas or activities that you are thinking of using with this strategy?
EXPERT TESTIMONY Expert Testimony – is evidence in support of a fact or statement given by a person thought to have specialized skill or knowledge. Football great Warren Moon suggested … According to recent reports from the Surgeon General… As Mr. Baginski explained last week in class, … Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Modified 10/08.
EXPERT TESTIMONY GUIDELINES v Quote the “voice of authority” – who would be an expert on this topic? a scientist or doctor? v a political figure? v your teacher? v another student? (you are an expert on student or teenage issues!) v v In a regular classroom essay or paper, the person or study you use as an authority must be real, and you need to use citations! v For on-demand writes, you may make up a source (doctor, scientist, etc. ) and your own fictional quote to support your ideas
EXPERT TESTIMONY EXAMPLES I would then threaten the rest of the disruptive students with the same punishment if they did not stay in line. As a great philosopher once said, “The threat of force often produces greater result than it’s application”. “The effort put in reflects the outcome, ” says Professor Plum from the University of Washington. I must say that I have to agree with this powerful message. One of my teachers, Mr. Brown, says late work is “a problem that needs to be fixed”. The extra time given to kids is getting ridiculous. Copyright © 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Modified 10/08.
EXPERT TESTIMONY PRACTICE v Take out Letter to Principal Scaddilybob again. v Use a highlighter pen to mark any example of Expert Testimony found in the letter. v Compare what you highlighted with a person sitting near you. v Are there any other places in the paper where you could effectively add other examples of Expert Testimony?
YOUR TURN! EXPERT TESTIMONY APPLICATION Look back at the paper you wrote on winning the trip to the Great Wolf Lodge. v Consider how an expert could support your position. v Who would that expert be and what might he/she say? v Decide where to add that expert testimony, then go back and do so. v Make sure that your “testimony” contains powerful word choice. v Share your changes with a partner. Discuss how these strengthened your argument. v