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Persuasive Writing CREATING A CONVINCING ARGUMENT
Defined �Persuasive – “Tending to or having the power to persuade. ” (Am. Heritage 1039) �Persuade – “To induce or to undertake a course of action or embrace a point of view by means of argument, reason, or entreaty. ” (Am. Heritage 1039) From Latin persuādēre: to urge
Persuasive Writing �Writing that is used to convince the reader of a particular point of view or issue “think” T. V. commercial �Also called an argumentative writing because it argue for or against a point of view. �Research the facts, pro & con, that support and refute your argument. �Present your arguments in a logical manner. (See slides on essay structure)
Tools of Persuasion Facts & Statistics 1. Writer uses verified statistics from a reputable source These include: almanacs, reference books, & governmental websites All statistical data must be vetted for accuracy! 2. Opinions (BE VERY CAREFUL HERE!) All opinions must be from experts in the field Writer must vet all credentials
Tools of Persuasion (cont’d) 3. Testimonials Roughly similar to opinions when an expert gives advice Again, use caution & only expert advice Again, use a thorough vetting process 4. Examples & Anecdotes Examples – define, describe, or illustrations used to make concept better understood Anecdotes – “stories” that demonstrate the concept Use sparingly to not confuse the issues
Tools of Persuasion (cont’d) 5. Appeals to Reason - Logos Often used as a logical approach to a topic “Think” if this happens, then natural conclusion would be…. . Be sure not to use faulty logic or huge topic leap 6. Appeals to Emotion - Pathos Often used with strong emotion (pity, love, hate, etc. ) Caution! Use of this tool can have adverse effect if topic is controversial or already driven by emotion. 7. Appeals to Expertise – Ethos Often uses logic of expert opinions or facts Be sure the facts have been vetted.
Tools of Persuasion (cont’d) 8. Ridicule & Name-Calling When an author uses words to make another opinion or ideas look less than worthy and foolish � THIS DEVICE SHOULD NEVER BE USED IN AN ASSIGNMENT! 9. Bandwagon “Think” everyone thinks this or everyone is doing this… � THIS DEVICE SHOULD NEVER BE USED IN AN ASSIGNMENT!
Words & Phrases Commonly Used in Persuasive Writing WORDS �Accordingly �Because* Use sparingly �Consequently �Clearly �Indeed �Obviously �Since �Thus �Therefore �Subsequently PHRASES �For this reason �This is why �It is necessary to �It makes sense to �It seems clear that �It stands to reason �It then follows that �We must
Structure of Persuasive Essay �Essays often follow the classic 5 paragraph format. �Paragraph 1 – Introduction �Paragraph 2, 3, 4 – Body of paper �Paragraph 5 - Conclusion
Structure of Persuasive Essay – Introductory Paragraph 1 �Introduction – quite simply this is where the argument is introduced and includes a thesis statement �Remember this is where you engage the reader & entice them to read the paper. � 5 Ways to Introduce 1. Use a Quote 2. General statement moving towards your thesis 3. Use a statistic 4. Propose the opposite argument 5. Quote the best source available “hitting them with your best shot”
Structure of Persuasive Essay – “Body Paragraphs” � 1 st Body Paragraph – although there arguments, it is best to use solid facts in favor of your argument here. This is not your strongest argument! It is just a plain good argument. � 2 nd Body Paragraph – this can either be your weakest argument point or when you present the “con” of your argument. How better to support your argument than giving a counterpoint. � 3 rd Body Paragraph – this where you present your strongest argument This is where you “wow” them in the end. � Be sure to have solid facts to back up all the arguments. � Be sure to use the transitional words and phrases between paragraphs to make smooth transitions and good sense of writing style � Remember to keep referring (hinting) back to thesis statement!
Structure of Persuasive Essay – “Concluding Paragraph” �Final paragraph usually summarizes your argument. Resembles the introduction and most often does not present any detailed arguments. (A new argument should be a complete paragraph!) It directly links and completes thesis statement. (Think completing the circle. ) Sum up all the arguments. Leave them with what must be done next.
Works Cited Francis, Peter J. Essay Types - The Persuasive Essay. HGPublishing, 2001. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. <www. hgpublishing. com/Free_Essay_Help/Types/Persuasive. html>. Francis, Peter J. Essay Structure. HGPublishing, 2001. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. <www. hgpublishing. com/Free_Essay_Help/Structure. html> Friedman, Laurie S. , ed. Writing the Critical Essay Gay Marriage. New York: Greenhaven Press, 2008. 60 -63. Print. "persuade. " American Heritage College Dictionary. 4 th ed. 2002. 1039. Print. "persuasive. " American Heritage College Dictionary. 4 th ed. 2002. 1039. Print.