- Slides: 18
Persuasive Techniques in Writing Cons Pros
Ethos The ethical or moral appeal. The source's credibility, the speaker's or author's authority. The character or reputation is called the speaker or writer's ethos. We are naturally more likely to be persuaded by a person who, we think, has personal warmth, consideration of others, a good mind and solid learning.
Pathos The emotional or motivational appeals; vivid language, emotional language and numerous sensory details. The persuasive appeal of pathos is an appeal to an audience's sense of identity, their selfinterest, their emotions. Many rhetoricians over the centuries have considered pathos the strongest of the appeals, though this view of persuasion is rarely mentioned without a lament about the power of emotion to sway the mind.
Logos is the logical appeal, persuading by the use of reasoning. The logic and evidence used to support a claim; can also be the facts and statistics used to help support the argument.
Evidence or Reasoning To Support Appeals
Anecdote Ethos or Pathos A brief story that illustrates a point. A short narrative that further explains your claim. “When I was your age, we didn’t have computers, so we had to actually know how to spell!”
Expert Opinion Ethos A statement made by an authority on a subject. A person with expert knowledge on the subject. “Government officials say that texting while driving…. ”
Fact Logos A statement that can be. proven true. Key words: Evidence, proof, truth “Studies show that more accidents are being caused by drivers texting while driving. ”
Statistic Logos A fact given in number form – data, percentages, averages, research to prove a claim or subject. “About 6, 000 deaths and a half a million injuries are caused by distracted drivers every year. ”
Testimonial Ethos n n Relies on endorsements from well-known people or satisfied customers. “As a former customer of QVC, I am extremely pleased with my new grill. ”
Loaded Language - pathos n n Uses words with strongly positve or negative connotations. These words are meant to cause an emotional or dramatic effect. “Today we know that these most wonderful of natural-born killers, these exquisite creatures of evolution, are not only not villains, are victims in danger of extinction. ”
Repetition – Ethos, Pathos, Logos Repeated words to have an effect on the audience. Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech can be summarized in the view below, which associates the size of the word with its frequency.
Emotional Appeal Pathos Create strong feelings such as happiness, sadness or excitement. “I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. ”
Bandwagon -Ethos Pathos Appeals to people’s desires to fit in and be part of the crowd. “All your friends are doing this or have that…” “When we let freedom ring, when we let it ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! free at last! thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"
Call to Action- Ethos Tells the audience what the SHOULD do NOW to help the cause or support the argument made. “And if America is to be a great nation this must become true. So let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire…From every mountainside, let freedom ring. ”
Rhetorical Fallacies Effective Persuasive Writing: In a strong argument, writers support claims and assertions with sound reasoning and evidence. Ineffective Persuasive Writing: If the argument is based on rhetorical fallacies, which are false or misleading statements, then the argument is weakened and the writer could become a discredited authority.
Types of Fallacies Ad hominem attempts to discredit an idea by attacking the person’s character rather than his or her argument. n “This candidate clearly is n the wrong man for this position. He will cause more harm than good. ” Stereotyping Makes a broad statement about people on the basis of their gender, ethnicity, race or political, social, professional or religious group. n “All Middle School students use their phones during class. ”