Personality Your enduring pattern of behavior How you

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Personality • Your enduring pattern of behavior. – How you act most of the

Personality • Your enduring pattern of behavior. – How you act most of the time.

Draw a Pig

Draw a Pig

Toward the top of the paper, you are positive and optimistic. Toward the middle,

Toward the top of the paper, you are positive and optimistic. Toward the middle, you are a realist. Toward the bottom, you are pessimistic, and have a tendency to behave negatively. Facing left, you believe in tradition, are friendly, and remember dates (birthdays, etc. ) Facing right, you are innovative and active, but don't have a strong sense of family, nor do you remember dates. Facing front (looking at you), you are direct, enjoy playing devil's advocate and neither fear nor avoid discussions. With many details, you are analytical, cautious, and distrustful. With few details, you are emotional and naive, you care little for details and are a risk-taker. With less than 4 legs showing, you are insecure or are living through a period of major change. With 4 legs showing, you are secure, stubborn, and stick to your ideals. The size of the ears indicates how good a listener you are. The bigger the better. The length of the tail indicates the quality of your sex life. And again more is better! Did they draw a tail? : )

Unconscious: our reservoir of unacceptable thoughts, feelings, and memories Unconscious: information processing that we

Unconscious: our reservoir of unacceptable thoughts, feelings, and memories Unconscious: information processing that we are not aware of.

5

5

Battles • Id- all things that give us pleasure – Wish fulfillment • Ego-

Battles • Id- all things that give us pleasure – Wish fulfillment • Ego- Reality principle. Represses the Id • Super Ego- Uses guilt to enforce rules 6

Freud

Freud

Oral Stage • Oral Stage (0 -18 months) • Pleasure centers on the mouth

Oral Stage • Oral Stage (0 -18 months) • Pleasure centers on the mouth – sucking, biting and chewing • What kind of issues do you think could develop?

Possible Complex • If at a young age you are forced to wean from

Possible Complex • If at a young age you are forced to wean from a mother’s nipple, bottle, or pacifier you may become orally fixated. You may have trust issues. – Making up for the lack of oral stimulation • Always chewing gum, biting nails, putting things in your mouth • If at a young age you are not weaned from the mother’s nipple, bottle, or pacifier you may become too trusting and dependent.

Anal Stage • Anal Stage (18 -36 months) • Pleasure focuses on bowel and

Anal Stage • Anal Stage (18 -36 months) • Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control • What kind of issues do you think could develop?

Possible Complex • Concentrates on “anal cavity pleasure” • How children react to “pooping

Possible Complex • Concentrates on “anal cavity pleasure” • How children react to “pooping and potty training. ” • Those who are embarrassed, potty trained to early, or feel guilty may become anal retentive – Everything must be perfect, very neat, organized • Those who enjoy a good poop, may develop into what is called anal expulsive tendencies – Very messy, disorderly, live a more relaxed life

Phallic Stage • Phallic Stage (3 -6 years) • Genitals are pleasure zone; adjustment

Phallic Stage • Phallic Stage (3 -6 years) • Genitals are pleasure zone; adjustment in coping with incestuous feelings • Believes that children recognize the differences in boys and girls What issues?

Possible Complex • Oedipus Complex- complex set of emotions aroused in a young child,

Possible Complex • Oedipus Complex- complex set of emotions aroused in a young child, typically around the age of four, by an unconscious sexual desire for the parent of the opposite sex and a wish to exclude the parent of the same sex. • little boys love there mothers and become jealous of there fathers (want to kill) - Explains rebelling against fathers - Freud tries to explain homosexuality in men as not having these urges • Electra Complex- little girls are envious of there fathers, want to be like them, “penis envy”. Blame mother for not having a penis. This creates resentment to the mother. Pushes them to want their own children. Identifies with the mother and resolves the crisis. • Identification resolves issues

Latency • Latency (6 - puberty) • Dormant sexual feelings and same sex play

Latency • Latency (6 - puberty) • Dormant sexual feelings and same sex play • What issues?

 • This is where sexual urges are repressed – Same sex play –

• This is where sexual urges are repressed – Same sex play – Cooties – Focus on learning and there is an absence of sexual desire – Someone who can not have a relationship • Maybe you are still in the latency stage, you must get out of it to develop healthy relationships

Genital Stage • Genital Stage (puberty on) • Maturation of sexual interests • Freud

Genital Stage • Genital Stage (puberty on) • Maturation of sexual interests • Freud argues that every decision that is made during this stage is because of sexual urges

Welcome • Please put your personality labs in the basket. – Partner activity has

Welcome • Please put your personality labs in the basket. – Partner activity has been postponed.

Defense Mechanisms The ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.

Defense Mechanisms The ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.

Repression 1. Repression banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. 1. 2. 3.

Repression 1. Repression banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. 1. 2. 3. Forget memories of abuse by parents Forget that teacher that failed you in middle school Forget you dentist appointment

2. Regression leads an individual faced with anxiety to retreat to a more infantile

2. Regression leads an individual faced with anxiety to retreat to a more infantile psychosexual stage. 1. 2. Suck your thumb when you are anxious Throwing a tantrum when you don’t get your way at work

Defense Mechanisms 3. Reaction Formation causes the ego to unconsciously switch unacceptable impulses into

Defense Mechanisms 3. Reaction Formation causes the ego to unconsciously switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites. 1. 2. A man who is gay has a number of heterosexual affairs and openly criticizes homosexuality Acting like you hate someone you really have a crush on. fairs and openly criticizes gays. an who is gay has a number of conspicuous heterosexual affairs and openly criticizes gays.

4. Projection leads people to disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to

4. Projection leads people to disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. 1. You all hate me- child to parents I can’t trust you! When feeling personally insecure we might say, “What are you staring at? ”

5. Rationalization offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons

5. Rationalization offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions. 1. Example, Everyone does this, its not a big deal Football was not for me, I was meant to flip giant tires Joe tried out for football

6. Displacement shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a less threatening object or person,

6. Displacement shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a less threatening object or person, redirecting anger toward a safer outlet. 1. 2. Mad at your wife; slam the car door. Mad at the ref, kick the chair.

7. Overcompensation- leads people to act in a lavish way to reduce their own

7. Overcompensation- leads people to act in a lavish way to reduce their own anxiety about giving into their id. 1. Not being their for your child, buying them a game system. 2. Bringing your wife flowers because you are late.

8. Denial – offers a reduction of anxiety by acting as if a certain

8. Denial – offers a reduction of anxiety by acting as if a certain situation has not occurred. • Spending as usual when you know that you are Bankrupt

9. Sublimation act out unacceptable impulses by converting these behaviors into a more acceptable

9. Sublimation act out unacceptable impulses by converting these behaviors into a more acceptable form. 1. Extreme anger might take up kick-boxing 2. Emotional distress becomes creativity etc.

The Neo-Freudians National Library of Medicine Like Freud, Adler believed in childhood tensions. However,

The Neo-Freudians National Library of Medicine Like Freud, Adler believed in childhood tensions. However, these tensions were social in nature and not sexual. A child struggles with an inferiority complex during growth and strives for superiority and power. Alfred Adler (1870 -1937) 29

Oldest _ Responsible _ Conservative _ Doesn’t make waves _ Follows parents’ wishes _

Oldest _ Responsible _ Conservative _ Doesn’t make waves _ Follows parents’ wishes _ Emotionally intense _ Authoritarian _ Perfectionist _ Driven _ Surrogate parent _ Leadership material

Middle _ Peacemaker _ Negotiator _ Highly attuned to needs of others _ Doesn’t

Middle _ Peacemaker _ Negotiator _ Highly attuned to needs of others _ Doesn’t like to follow authority _ Creative _ Independent _ Peer-focused _ “Chameleon”

Youngest _ Comical/entertaining _ Highly social _ Laid back _ Dependent _ Creative _

Youngest _ Comical/entertaining _ Highly social _ Laid back _ Dependent _ Creative _ Unconventional _ Few expectations of self

Alfred Adler

Alfred Adler

The Neo-Freudians Archive of the History of American Psychology/ University of Akron Jung believed

The Neo-Freudians Archive of the History of American Psychology/ University of Akron Jung believed in the collective unconscious, which contained a common reservoir of images derived from our species’ past. This is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the mother being a symbol of nurturance. Carl Jung (1875 -1961) 35

Person A Conscious Personal Unconscious Person B Conscious Personal Unconscious Collective Unconscious Person C

Person A Conscious Personal Unconscious Person B Conscious Personal Unconscious Collective Unconscious Person C Conscious Personal Unconscious

Character Archetypes The father: Authority figure; stern; powerful. The mother: Nurturing; comforting. The child:

Character Archetypes The father: Authority figure; stern; powerful. The mother: Nurturing; comforting. The child: Longing for innocence; rebirth; salvation. The wise old man: Guidance; knowledge; wisdom. The hero: Champion; defender; rescuer. The maiden: Innocence; desire; purity. The trickster: Deceiver; liar; trouble-maker. The shadow: Often described as the darker side of the psyche, representing wildness, chaos and the unknown.

Situational Archetypes Quest: The main character takes a journey that may be physical or

Situational Archetypes Quest: The main character takes a journey that may be physical or emotional to understand his or her personality and the nature of the world. The Initiation: The main character undergoes experiences that lead him towards maturity. Good Versus Evil: It represents the clash of forces that represent goodness with those that represent evil. The Fall: The main character falls from grace in consequence of his or her own action

The Neo-Freudians The Bettmann Archive/ Corbis Like Adler, Horney believed in the social aspects

The Neo-Freudians The Bettmann Archive/ Corbis Like Adler, Horney believed in the social aspects of childhood growth and development. She countered Freud’s assumption that women have weak superegos and suffer from “penis envy. ” Karen Horney (1885 -1952) 42

Free Association • • • Peanut Butter Arizona School Baseball Fork Yogurt Dinosaur Miley

Free Association • • • Peanut Butter Arizona School Baseball Fork Yogurt Dinosaur Miley Cyrus Twilight Psychology Mom

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Developed by Henry Murray, the TAT is a projective test

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Developed by Henry Murray, the TAT is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes. Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc. 45

Rorschach Inkblot Test The most widely used projective test uses a set of 10

Rorschach Inkblot Test The most widely used projective test uses a set of 10 inkblots and was designed by Hermann Rorschach. It seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots. Lew Merrim/ Photo Researcher, Inc. 53

Game- Toe Tap • Huddle up in your group • Goal is to tap

Game- Toe Tap • Huddle up in your group • Goal is to tap as many peoples toes as possible • Keep track and count

In the games were you: (circle all that apply) • • • Organized Ruthless

In the games were you: (circle all that apply) • • • Organized Ruthless Calm Conforming Fun-loving Careless Helpful Anxious Independent Reserved • • • Disciplined Suspicious Secure Practical Sociable Disorganized Trusting Insecure Imaginative Dethatched

Welcome • Graded Psych. Port: • Quiz tomorrow Personality due Personality. tonight. • Mods

Welcome • Graded Psych. Port: • Quiz tomorrow Personality due Personality. tonight. • Mods 44 -46. • Partner activity will be collected tomorrow.

Personality • Your enduring pattern of behavior. – How you act most of the

Personality • Your enduring pattern of behavior. – How you act most of the time.

Types of traits • 1. Cardinal trait • 2. Central trait – • 3.

Types of traits • 1. Cardinal trait • 2. Central trait – • 3. Secondary trait - Gordon Allport

A. Cardinal traits • This is a single characteristic that directs most of a

A. Cardinal traits • This is a single characteristic that directs most of a person’s activities. • It is so pervasive that it dominates just about everything that a person does. • E. g. , A person so power-hungry that they are solely driven by that need for control.

B. Central traits • Central traits are the major characteristics of an individual. •

B. Central traits • Central traits are the major characteristics of an individual. • These usually number from 5 to 10 in any one person (e. g. , honesty, sociability). • These are rather pervasive & effect many behaviors. We can use a small number of adjectives to describe someone.

C. Secondary traits • These are characteristics that effect behavior in fewer situations &

C. Secondary traits • These are characteristics that effect behavior in fewer situations & are less influential than central or cardinal traits. • A preference for ice cream or dislike of modern art would be considered a secondary trait.

The Trait Perspective An individual’s unique constellation of durable dispositions and consistent ways of

The Trait Perspective An individual’s unique constellation of durable dispositions and consistent ways of behaving (traits) constitutes his or her personality. Examples of Traits Honest Dependable Moody Impulsive Allport & Odbert (1936), identified 18, 000 words representing traits. 70

Exploring Traits Factor analysis is a statistical approach used to describe and relate personality

Exploring Traits Factor analysis is a statistical approach used to describe and relate personality traits. Cattell used this approach to develop a 16 Personality Factor (16 PF) inventory. Raymond Cattell (1905 -1998) 71

Factor Analysis Cattell found that large groups of traits could be reduced down to

Factor Analysis Cattell found that large groups of traits could be reduced down to 16 core personality traits based on statistical correlations. Superficial traits Boisterous Impatient Irritable Excitement Basic trait Impulsive 72

EXTRAVERSION Sociable Sensationseeking Lively Assertive Active

EXTRAVERSION Sociable Sensationseeking Lively Assertive Active

Personality Dimensions Hans and Sybil Eysenck suggested that personality could be reduced down to

Personality Dimensions Hans and Sybil Eysenck suggested that personality could be reduced down to two polar dimensions, extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability. 74

Biological Theories of Personality • What % of the variation in a population is

Biological Theories of Personality • What % of the variation in a population is attributable to genes? - heritability • We are not sure BUT temperaments do seem to be stable from infants to old age.

Eysenck • Believed personality to be highly inheritable and related to temperament

Eysenck • Believed personality to be highly inheritable and related to temperament

Type A • Type A is usually competitive and has a high challenging spirit.

Type A • Type A is usually competitive and has a high challenging spirit. • Type A’s has got a severe sense of time urgency. • Type A's biggest problem is stress • Type A’s are usually overwhelmed by the amount of tasks they have to do. • Type A’s are over achievers, perform well in many activities. • Correlates with high blood pressure

Type B • Relaxed by nature and has no sense of time urgency •

Type B • Relaxed by nature and has no sense of time urgency • Easygoing and take things slowly and steadily. • Take time to think and ponder before acting • May also delay their work to the last minute • Work well as part of a team

A B

A B

The Person-Situation Controversy • Are traits really stable? Kind Of…. They change according to

The Person-Situation Controversy • Are traits really stable? Kind Of…. They change according to the situation.

 • Friendly • Fast Paced • Detached • Interesting • Energized • Enthusiastic

• Friendly • Fast Paced • Detached • Interesting • Energized • Enthusiastic • Disorganized • Creative • Clever • Outgoing • Awkward • Patient • Odd • Helpful • Organized • Cold • Kind • Awkward

The Person-Situation Controversy Trait theorists argue that behaviors from a situation may be different,

The Person-Situation Controversy Trait theorists argue that behaviors from a situation may be different, but average behavior remains the same. Therefore, traits matter. 83

Reciprocal Determinism • Bandura: Personality is more than just traits, it is the complex

Reciprocal Determinism • Bandura: Personality is more than just traits, it is the complex combination of thoughts, behavior, and the environment.

Self-Efficacy • people's judgements about their capability to perform particular tasks

Self-Efficacy • people's judgements about their capability to perform particular tasks

Humanistic View of Personality SELF Actualization

Humanistic View of Personality SELF Actualization

Humanistic View of Personality • Personality develops in an attempt for each person to

Humanistic View of Personality • Personality develops in an attempt for each person to meet his or her needs. • Self Actualization is the ultimate goal, but most do not get there. • The Self Actualized individual has fully realized his or her potential and is comfortable with one’s “true self”. • They compassionate and autonomous.

Most people don’t get there! • Instead: • lack of Self-Efficacy: belief in your

Most people don’t get there! • Instead: • lack of Self-Efficacy: belief in your skills and abilities. We fear and doubt ourselves. • The cultural environment restricts us from fully developing our best selves. • Parenting that is overly controlling or overly permissive can hinder personal growth. • Lack of unconditional support.

Assessing Traits Personality inventories are questionnaires (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) designed to

Assessing Traits Personality inventories are questionnaires (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors assessing several traits at once. 90

Personality Type Personality types, assessed by measures such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, consist

Personality Type Personality types, assessed by measures such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, consist of a number of traits. For example, a feeling type personality is sympathetic, appreciative, and tactful. Based on theories of Jung. Sympathetic Appreciative Tactful Feeling Type Personality 91

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

The Big Five Factors Today’s trait researchers believe that Eysencks’ personality dimensions are too

The Big Five Factors Today’s trait researchers believe that Eysencks’ personality dimensions are too narrow and Cattell’s 16 PF too large. So, a middle range (five factors) of traits does a better job of assessment. Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism Openness Extraversion 93

The Big Five According to Big Five trait theory: Your traits are stable over

The Big Five According to Big Five trait theory: Your traits are stable over time. They can be attributed to your genetics They describe personalities equally well across different cultures They predict other attributes.

Endpoints 95

Endpoints 95

MMPI The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most widely researched and clinically

MMPI The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. It was originally developed to identify emotional disorders. 97

True or False 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. I am

True or False 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. I am bothered by acid stomach several times a week. I am easily awakened by noise. I like to read newspaper articles on crime. I am neither gaining nor losing weight. When I take a new job, I like to be tipped off on who should be gotten next to. I have never been in trouble with the law. I am inclined to take things hard. I never worry about my looks. People generally demand more respect for their own rights than they are willing to allow for others.

MMPI Test Profile 99

MMPI Test Profile 99

Personal Control Social-cognitive psychologists emphasize our sense of personal control, whether we control the

Personal Control Social-cognitive psychologists emphasize our sense of personal control, whether we control the environment or the environment controls us. External locus of control refers to the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate. Internal locus of control refers to the perception that we can control our own fate. 100

The Person-Situation Controversy Trait theorists argue that behaviors from a situation may be different,

The Person-Situation Controversy Trait theorists argue that behaviors from a situation may be different, but average behavior remains the same. Therefore, traits matter. 102

Reciprocal Determinism • Bandura: Personality is more than just traits, it is the complex

Reciprocal Determinism • Bandura: Personality is more than just traits, it is the complex combination of thoughts, behavior, and the environment.

Humanistic View of Personality SELF Actualization

Humanistic View of Personality SELF Actualization

Humanistic View of Personality • Personality develops in an attempt for each person to

Humanistic View of Personality • Personality develops in an attempt for each person to meet his or her needs. • Self Actualization is the ultimate goal, but most do not get there. • The Self Actualized individual has fully realized his or her potential and is comfortable with one’s “true self”. • They compassionate and autonomous.

Most people don’t get there! • Instead: • lack of Self-Efficacy: belief in your

Most people don’t get there! • Instead: • lack of Self-Efficacy: belief in your skills and abilities. We fear and doubt ourselves. • The cultural environment restricts us from fully developing our best selves. • Parenting that is overly controlling or overly permissive can hinder personal growth. • Lack of unconditional support. – Causes people to seek approval.

Spotlight Effect • The tendency to think that more people notice something about you

Spotlight Effect • The tendency to think that more people notice something about you than they do.

Questions about the Big Five 1. How stable are these traits? Quite stable in

Questions about the Big Five 1. How stable are these traits? Quite stable in adulthood. However, they change over development. 2. How heritable are they? Fifty percent or so for each trait. 3. How about other cultures? These traits are common across cultures. 4. Can they predict other personal attributes? Yes. Conscientious people are morning type and extraverted are evening type. 111

MMPI • • • Concern with bodily symptoms Depressive Symptoms Awareness of problems and

MMPI • • • Concern with bodily symptoms Depressive Symptoms Awareness of problems and vulnerabilities Conflict, struggle, anger, respect for society's rules Stereotypical masculine or feminine behaviors Level of trust, suspiciousness, sensitivity Worry, Anxiety, tension, doubts, obsessiveness Odd thinking and social alienation Level of excitability • People orientation; introvert/extrovert 32 57 60 50 56 40 48 78 46 69

Optimism vs. Pessimism An optimistic or pessimistic attributional style is your way of explaining

Optimism vs. Pessimism An optimistic or pessimistic attributional style is your way of explaining positive or negative events. Positive psychology aims to discover and promote conditions that enable individuals and communities to thrive. 116