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PERSONALITY Trait Perspective
Agenda Group Project Reminder Data due December 10 th Trait Perspective Trait Measurement
Personality Perspectives (Module 31) Psychodynamic Perspective Freud, Jung, Adler, Horney Focus on subconscious, early experiences Humanistic Perspective Rogers, Maslow Focus on the “upward” motives and free will Trait Perspective Current approach
Trait Perspective Describe your best friend. She’s considerate. She’s funny. She tries not to judge people immediately. What do you like about your brother? He’s supportive. He’s generous. Why are you a good applicant for this job? I’m hard-working, dedicated…etc.
Trait Perspective Traits An individual’s consistent characteristics across situations Trait Theory Seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality. Formula Weighted variables
How Many Traits Are There? How many words can you think of that describe someone’s qualities or characteristics? Allport 1930 s Dictionary 4500 adjectives that could be called traits Narrowed Central down from ~18, 000 Traits – traits that strongly drive people. Secondary Traits – less influential traits.
Traits Assumptions Some traits are more basic than others. More important in predicting behavior and defining people Traits exist on continuums. Most traits exist in all people. High <----> Low Which traits are the most important? Determine which traits “lump together. ” Ask people which traits are most important. Determine which traits are the most influential by observing behavior.
Trait Theories Cattell 16 personality dimensions Eysenck Three dimensions Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism Big Five (Costa & Mc. Crae) Openness Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism
Think of one word to describe your personality.
Inside the Big Five Openness Conscientiousness Fantasy Competence Aesthetics Order Actions Dutifulness Feelings Achievement Ideas Motivation Self-Discipline Deliberation
Inside the Big Five Extraversion Agreeableness Warmth Trust Gregariousness Straightforwardness Assertiveness Altruism Activity Compliance Excitement Modesty Seeking Positive Emotions Tender-Mindedness
Inside the Big Five (pg. 395) Neuroticism Anxiety Angry Hostility Depression Self-Consciousness Impulsiveness Vulnerability
Evaluating the Big Five Problems with the Big Five? Varying Importance Openness Suggested Additions Self-Consciousness Masculinity/Femininity Intellect/Imagination Religiosity Support Stability of traits Cross-Cultural Validation
Evaluating the Trait Perspective Pros Straightforward and consistent with how people think about personality Lends itself to measurement more than other perspectives Cons Determining the importance of traits Labels/describes personality, doesn’t explain much.