- Slides: 19
Personality… Mr P. Leighton Sports Psychology Y 13 Lesson 1
Today’s Session… l l l Discuss what we remember from last years introduction to personality… Look at the 3 perspectives to personalitywhich one do you subscribe to? Understand the key terms and theories which will be noted in the session…
Personality then… l l Everyone displays their own unique patterns of behaviour- from the 100 M runners preparation for a race to 2 children playing catch. Participation in different sporting events depends on your personality.
What the Theorists say… Personality is…“What a man really is… not what he appears to be” (Allport and Whiting) Personality is…“The sum total of an individuals characteristics which make a human unique” (Hollander) “Personality represents those characteristics of the person that account for consistent patterns of behaviour” (Pervin, 1993)
The 3 major views on personality development are… l Trait Perspective l Social Learning Perspective l Interactionist Approach
Trait Perspective (B=F(P)) l l Personality is made up of different SECONDARY traits inherited from parental genes. Behaviour is genetically innate and programmed. People can be naturally inclined to be more ambitious, competitive or aggressive. Traits are stable, enduring and consistent in all situations…
Trait theory in sport… Graham Hill l Formula 1 Driver. Aggressive driving style. World Champion. Damon Hill l Formula 1 Driver. Aggressive driving style World Champion.
Problems with Trait Theory… l l l Behaviour is not always predictable. It does not account for peoples responses to different environmental situations. It also doesn’t account for peoples adaptability in situations.
Eysenck’s 4 personality traits… Personality Type Description or Characteristics Extrovert l. Affiliate well to other people l. Outgoing, gregarious and Sociable l. Become aroused more slowly than introverts l. Low sensitivity to the RAS Introvert l. Shy Neurotic l Stable l and Reserved l. Prefer isolation to social situations l. Become aroused quicker than extroverts l. High sensitivity to the RAS Extreme unpredictable emotions (mood swings) l. Unreliable moods l. High degrees of stress l. Slow to recover from stress Predictable in their emotions in appropriate situations l. Predictable moods l. Low degrees of stress l. Rapid recovery from stress
Personality Types (Eysenck). l Eysenck proposed that personality could only be… • Extrovert and Stable • Extrovert and Neurotic • Introvert and Stable • Introvert and Neurotic He also added a 3 rd dimension to his personality model called Psychoticism, a term which helps define how tender or tough minded people are.
Reticular Activating System (RAS). l l l Introverts are more easily aroused than extroverts. This is because of a sensitivity in an area of the brain called the Reticular Activating System. There is a greater likelihood then that introverts can become over-aroused.
Personality Types (Cattell). l l Cattell questioned whether personality could be understood by examining just 3 dimensions. Cattell, therefore, proposed that examining 16 personality factors in a questionnaire. • www. heinemann. co. uk/hotlinks • Express code: 6855 P
Narrow Band Theory (Girdano). l Girdano proposed that there are only 2 distinct personality types… Type A Highly competitive. Works fast. Strong desire to succeed. Likes control. Prone to suffer stress. Type B Non-competitive. Works slowly. Lacks a desire to succeed. Doesn’t like control. Less prone to stress.
Social Learning Theory. (B=F(E)) l l l Social learning theory is a direct contrast to trait theory. All behaviour is learned. Learning occurs by way of environmental experiences and through other people.
Social Learning Theory. (Bandura) l Bandura believed learning was stimulated by environmental experiences such as… • The behaviour of others being imitated • through observation. New behaviour being acquired after observation, but only when it is endorsed through social reinforcement.
SLT in sport- Athletics. l l l Certain athletes have the opportunity and privilege to train world champions. Behaviours can be copied by the novices and desired behaviour receives positive feedback. The process of vicarious experiences and reinforcement facilitates behaviour.
Conditions that support Social Learning… Observer behaviour is demonstrated by a significant other i. e. Role Model. The observer and role model are the same gender. Conditions that support Social Learning. Role model is powerful and authoritative. Observer wants to adopt the norms and values of a new culture. i. e. after joining a New team.
So what are the problems with Social Learning Theory?
Interactionist Approach- Work for you… l l Read page 201203 making notes similar to the ones in the slideshow. Have this ready for next weeks lesson.