- Slides: 7
Persian Wars Cause of wars: Athenian support of Greek colonies in Persia Battle of Marathon: 490 BCE Won by Athens’ phalanx, a 10 to 1 victory Role of Pheidippides – ran 26 miles (from Marathon) to tell city of the victory, then died.
480 BCE – Second Invasion Battle of Thermopylae v. Spartans and Athenians can’t stop Persians v. Historic last stand by Leonidas and 300 Spartans v. Athens burned
Thermopylae was the scene of the heroic death of Leonidas I and his 1400 men, 300 Spartans. In their attempt to stop the Persian invasion in 480 BCE. The Greeks were betrayed by a spy who told the Persians about a path over the mountain, attacked the Greeks from the rear, and killed all the Spartans. The Battle of Thermopylae was recorded by the Greek historian Herodotus.
Battle of Salamis ØAthens navy vs. Persian navy ØPersians drawn into the straits near Salamis ØPersians: More ships, but bigger ships trapped in the little straits ØAthens Wins; Persians go home
GOLDEN AGE OF GREECE 479 – 431 BCE Height of Greek culture and development Pericles and the Delian League Pericles For over 20 years, at Athens' height, the city was dominated by the aloof, 'Olympian' figure of Pericles. A magnificent orator with a reputation for scrupulous honesty, Pericles deepened and extended the reforms that Cleisthenes had set in motion some 50 years before. A keen patron of learning and the arts, he masterminded the construction of the Parthenon. However, in glorifying Athens, he set it upon a collision course with Sparta that would Ultimately lead to its ruin.
Pericles as Leader • creates direct democracy • Takes over Delian League; uses money to strengthen Athenian fleet beautify Athens • Pericles builds the Parthenon • Classical art—values harmony, order, balance, proportion, beauty