Persian Gulf War 1 Objective Comprehend the key

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Persian Gulf War 1

Persian Gulf War 1

Objective Comprehend the key events of the Post Cold War Era and the impact

Objective Comprehend the key events of the Post Cold War Era and the impact of air and space power on the missions of that era. Cognitive Samples of Behavior: • State the US objectives of the Gulf War. • List the objectives of the air campaign used in the Gulf War. • Outline the key elements of Colonel Warden’s “INSTANT THUNDER” plan. • Identify the four phases of the air campaign. • Describe the significance of air and space power in the Gulf War. 2

Overview • • • Prelude to War Operation DESERT SHIELD Operation DESERT STORM Air

Overview • • • Prelude to War Operation DESERT SHIELD Operation DESERT STORM Air Campaign Ground Campaign Operations PROVIDE COMFORT/NORTHERN WATCH – The Conflict and Lessons Learned 3

Prelude to War 4

Prelude to War 4

Prelude to War • Ottoman Empire • British colony • Long history of border

Prelude to War • Ottoman Empire • British colony • Long history of border disputes • Access to oil fields, Persian Gulf • Arab versus Persian, vying for regional dominance • 16 July 1979, Saddam Hussein becomes president • Nov 1979 - Revolution overthrows Iranian government • Fear of Shia insurgency spreading from Iran • Opportunity to take advantage 5

Prelude to War • Iran-Iraq War (22 Sep 1980 -20 Aug 1988) • Iraq

Prelude to War • Iran-Iraq War (22 Sep 1980 -20 Aug 1988) • Iraq invaded Iran • Iran regained lost territory, June 82 • 6 -year stalemate, WWI-style tactics • Trench warefare • Human wave attacks • Mustard gas • Iraq supported by US, European and Arab nations • Operation OPERA (Osirak nuclear reactor) • Operation EARNEST WILL 6

Prelude to War • Results of Iran-Iraq War • Borders unchanged • Iran: •

Prelude to War • Results of Iran-Iraq War • Borders unchanged • Iran: • Cost 1 million casualties, $600 B • Iraq: • Cost 300 K casualties, $600 B • $200 B in UN reparations, economic sanctions • 130 B in debt, Arab loans 7

Prelude to War 8

Prelude to War 8

Prelude to War 9

Prelude to War 9

Prelude to War 10

Prelude to War 10

Prelude to War 11

Prelude to War 11

Prelude to War • Iraqi economy on verge of collapse • Saddam asked Kuwait

Prelude to War • Iraqi economy on verge of collapse • Saddam asked Kuwait to forgive war debts • Kuwait refused • Saddam pushed OPEC to cut oil production, raise price • OPEC refuses • Accused Kuwait of “slant drilling” into Iraqi oil fields • Raised old argument that Kuwait is “lost province” • Deployed troops to Kuwaiti border 12

Prelude to War • US ambassador to Iraq meets with Saddam • US message

Prelude to War • US ambassador to Iraq meets with Saddam • US message not clear • Lost in translation, diplomatic nuances • Saddam believed: • US valued good relations with Iraq • US valued Iraqi opposition to Iran • US would not get involved in dispute between Iraq and Kuwait 13

Invasion of Kuwait • 2 August 1990: 0200 L Iraq invades Kuwait • Last

Invasion of Kuwait • 2 August 1990: 0200 L Iraq invades Kuwait • Last resistance ends afternoon of 4 Aug • Saddam Hussein annexes Kuwait 14

Invasion of Kuwait 15

Invasion of Kuwait 15

Invasion of Kuwait 16

Invasion of Kuwait 16

Invasion of Kuwait 17

Invasion of Kuwait 17

Invasion of Kuwait • Gas prices in Cape Girardeau, MO 1 Aug 1990: 20

Invasion of Kuwait • Gas prices in Cape Girardeau, MO 1 Aug 1990: 20 Aug 1990: 1 Oct 1990: 3 Dec 1990: . 88/gallon $1. 19/gallon $1. 32/gallon $1. 34/gallon 18

Invasion of Kuwait • US Objectives: • Immediate, complete, and unconditional withdrawal of all

Invasion of Kuwait • US Objectives: • Immediate, complete, and unconditional withdrawal of all Iraqi forces from Kuwait • Restoration of Kuwait’s legitimate government • Security and stability of Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf • Protection of American citizens abroad 19

Operation DESERT SHIELD • CENTCOM CINC, Army Gen Norman Schwarzkopf – JFACC, CENTAF/9 th

Operation DESERT SHIELD • CENTCOM CINC, Army Gen Norman Schwarzkopf – JFACC, CENTAF/9 th AF Cmdr, Lt Gen Charles A. Horner – JFLCC – JFNCC • Served in Vietnam as junior officers • Implemented contingency plans • Requested supporting forces 20

Operation DESERT SHIELD 21

Operation DESERT SHIELD 21

Operation DESERT SHIELD 22

Operation DESERT SHIELD 22

Operation DESERT SHIELD • In first 5 days: • Five fighter squadrons, contingent of

Operation DESERT SHIELD • In first 5 days: • Five fighter squadrons, contingent of AWACS, and part of 82 d Airborne Division • Reserves/National Guard called to active duty 23

Operation DESERT SHIELD • Air bridge – – 265 C-141 B Starlifters 85 C-5

Operation DESERT SHIELD • Air bridge – – 265 C-141 B Starlifters 85 C-5 Galaxies CRAF (Civil Reserve Air Fleet). 20, 500 missions, carried 534, 000 passengers, and hauled 542, 000 tons 24

Operation DESERT SHIELD 25

Operation DESERT SHIELD 25

Operation DESERT SHIELD 26

Operation DESERT SHIELD 26

Iraqi Threat • 4 th largest armed force in world – Well over 1

Iraqi Threat • 4 th largest armed force in world – Well over 1 million troops – 750 combat and 200 support aircraft – Demonstrated chemical capability – Nuclear? – SCUD Missiles – Air defense system rivaling Moscow 27

Operation DESERT SHIELD 28

Operation DESERT SHIELD 28

Operation DESERT SHIELD 29

Operation DESERT SHIELD 29

Offensive Plan • Objectives – Isolate and incapacitate Iraqi command structure – Win air

Offensive Plan • Objectives – Isolate and incapacitate Iraqi command structure – Win air superiority – Destroy nuclear, biological, and chemical capabilities – Eliminate Iraqi offensive military capability – Eject Iraqi Army from Kuwait 30

Offensive Plan • Concept Of Operations: – Powerful and focused air attacks on strategic

Offensive Plan • Concept Of Operations: – Powerful and focused air attacks on strategic centers of gravity over a short period of time – Target Hussein Regime, not Iraqi people – Minimize civilian casualties and collateral damage – Minimize Coalition losses – Pit US and Coalition strengths against Iraqi weaknesses 31

Offensive Plan • Air offensive – Operation INSTANT THUNDER • Developed by Colonel John

Offensive Plan • Air offensive – Operation INSTANT THUNDER • Developed by Colonel John Warden and his Checkmate staff in Washington – Named in direct response to Vietnam’s unsuccessful Rolling Thunder campaign • Based on a unique five-ring model of the modern nation-state 32

Offensive Plan 33

Offensive Plan 33

Offensive Plan 34

Offensive Plan 34

Campaign Overview • Four Part Campaign: – Phase I: Strategic Air Campaign – Phase

Campaign Overview • Four Part Campaign: – Phase I: Strategic Air Campaign – Phase II: Suppression of enemy Air Defenses over Kuwait vicinity – Phase III: Air Attacks on ground forces in Kuwait and vicinity – Phase IV: Ground Operations as directed 35