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Persian Gulf 1990 -Present Persian Gulf Operation Desert Shield Operation Desert Storm Operation Iraqi Freedom
Persian Gulf Iraq invades Kuwait on August 2, 1990 Saddam Hussein believes that Kuwait is historically part of Iraq. However, that is only part of the reason.
Persian Gulf So, Why the invasion of Kuwait? Reason #1 Iraq has had claims upon Kuwait from as far back as 1902, 1938, and 1961. However, it had never turned to war until now.
Persian Gulf Reason #2 After the Iran-Iraq war, Iraq leased two Kuwaiti islands of Bubayan and Warbah. Kuwait demanded an Iraqi recognition of the borders. Iraq disagreed. Emir Jaber Al-Ahmed of Kuwait didn’t get a good reception on the border issue in Baghdad. Consequently,
Persian Gulf Reason #3 Kuwait demanded the repayment of the $12 billion war debt that Iraq incurred during the Iran-Iraq War. Iraq refused and began to criticize Kuwait’s overproduction of oil that contributed to the 30% decline of oil prices reaching $14 a barrel. As a result,
Persian Gulf Reason #4 Tareq Aziz, accused Kuwait in a July 16 letter to the Arab League of stealing oil from the Rumaila oilfield on the border between the two states.
Gulf War Personalities Emir Jabir of Kuwait President George Bush
Gulf War Personalities King Fahd of Saudi Arabia
Gulf War Personalities Saddam Hussein Iraqi President Tariq Aziz Iraqi Foreign Minister
Persian Gulf Desert Shield Part II
Persian Gulf Chronology Of the Invasion 7/25/90 ---U. . S. ambassador to Iraq April Glaspie tells Hussein that the U. S. has “no opinion on Inter-Arab affairs, like your border dispute with Kuwait” 8/2/90 ----Iraq invades Kuwait 8/2/90 ----U. N. Security Council adopts Resolution 660, Iraqi to withdraw from Kuwait. 8/4/90 ----President Bush called King Fahd to warn that Iraqi troops were massed along the Saudi border. 8/6/90 ----King Fahd agreed to receive American troops in his country. On the same day the U. N. adopts Resolution 661, which imposed economic sanctions on Iraq. Operation Desert Shield BIG ISSUE! WHY? 8/8/90 ----Iraq annexes Kuwait
Persian Gulf Chronology of the Invasion 8/9/90 ----The U. N. with Resolution 662 declares the Iraq’s annexation of Kuwait invalid. 8/25/90 ---United Nations Resolution 665 military interdiction authorized. 11/29/90 -United Nations Resolution 678 “Iraq refuses to comply with its obligation to implement resolution 660 and the above-mentioned subsequent relevant resolutions, in flagrant contempt of the Security Council. ” The Security Council will authorize the use of force if Iraq does not withdraw from Kuwait by midnight Jan. 15 1991.
Persian Gulf Operation Desert Storm Operation Desert Shield becomes Desert Storm on January 16, 1991 at 6: 38 p. m. Airland Battle—U. S. policy of using overwhelming force to achieve a quick victory Four Phase War Plan—Adopted on August 25, 1990 1) Air campaign against Iraq itself. 2) Air campaign against Iraqi forces in Kuwait 3) Destruction of the Iraqi Republican Guard forces in S. Iraq 4) Ground attack to eject the Iraqi forces out of Kuwait
Persian Gulf Operation Desert Storm “The liberation of Kuwait has begun. ” U. S. press secretary Marlin Fitzwater January 16—U. S. forces attack Baghdad, Kuwait, and other military targets in Iraq. The U. S. had 540, 331 personnel located in Saudi Arabia. The ground war starts on Feb. 24 and ends Feb. 28, 1991.
Persian Gulf Operation Desert Storm Exactly 100 hours after the ground battle had begun, the allies suspended all offensive operations. While Bush's decision to conclude the war without removing Saddam Hussein from power would become controversial, his advisors would recall that the president was insistent that the war should not exceed the authorization of the Security Council. http: //www. pbs. org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/bush-gulf-war/
Persian Gulf Aftermath
Persian Gulf Arise of Terrorism 1979 Iran Hostage Crisis: Islamic militants seized the U. S. Embassy in Tehran, Iran, and held 52 Americans hostage for 444 days. (Nov 4, 1979 to Jan 20, 1981) 1983 Bombing of US Embassy, Beirut, Lebanon. (April 18, 1983) 1983 Bombing of US Marine barracks, Beirut, Lebanon. (Oct 23, 1983) 1983 Bombing of US Embassy, Kuwait. (Dec 12, 1983) 1984 Kidnapping, torture, and murder of Political Officer/CIA Station Chief William F. Buckley, Beirut, Lebanon. Buckley died after 15 months of being tortured by the Islamic militants. (Mar 16, 1984 to Jun 3, 1985) 1984 Bombing of restaurant near US Air Force base in Torrejon, Spain. (Apr 12, 1984) 1984 Bombing of US Embassy annex, Beirut. (Sept 20, 1984) 1984 Hijacking of Kuwait Airlines Flight 221, diverted to Tehran: Two American passengers were murdered. (Dec 3, 1984)
Persian Gulf Arise in Terrorism 1985 Hijacking of TWA Flight 847, diverted to Beirut. An American hostage was killed and dumped on the airport tarmac. (June 14, 1985) 1985 Hijacking of cruise ship Achille Lauro. A wheelchair-bound American is thrown overboard & killed. More than 700 people were taken hostage. (Oct 7, 1985) 1985 Bombing of Vienna and Rome airports. Five Americans were among the dead. (Dec 27, 1985) 1986 Bombing of La Belle disco, Berlin frequented by US servicemen. (April 5, 1986) 1988 Kidnapping, torture, and murder of US Marine Corps Lt Col William Higgins who was serving with the UN peacekeeping team in Lebanon. (Feb 17, 1988) 1988 Bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland. Hundreds were murdered. (Dec 21, 1988)
Persian Gulf Arise in Terrorism 1992 Bombing of hotel in Aden, Yemen. Their target: U. S. Marines. (Dec 29, 1992) 1993 First bombing World Trade Center, New York City. 7 killed and 1, 042 wounded. (Feb 26, 1993) 1993 Foiled NY Landmarks plot by Omar Abdel Rahman to blow up the Holland Lincoln tunnels and other New York City landmarks. 1993 Attempted Assassination of President Bush Sr. during visit to Kuwait (April 14, 1993) 1993 Black Hawk Down: US helicopters were shot down in Mogadishu, Somalia, during Operation Restore Hope. (Oct 3 -4, 1993) 1994 Plot to assassinate President Clinton during visit to the Philippines. 1995 Failed Project Bojinka by Ramzi Yousef to blow up a dozen US airliners over the Pacific. (end in Jan 1995) 1995 Bombing US military headquarters, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (Nov 13, 1995)
Persian Gulf Arise in Terrorism 1996 Bombing Khobar Towers, Saudi Arabia, housing U. S. military personnel. (Jun 25, 1996) 1998 Bombing U. S. Nairobi Embassy, Kenya, Africa. (Aug 7, 1998) 1998 Bombing U. S. Dar es Salaam Embassy, Tanzania, Africa. (Aug 7, 1998) 1999 Foiled LAX Millennium plot by Ahmed Ressam to bomb Los Angeles International Airport. Ressam was arrested at US Canadian border. 2000 Failed USS The Sullivans bombing that was refueling in the port of Aden, Yemen. (Jan 3, 2000) 2000 Bombing USS Cole in the port of Aden, Yemen, 17 U. S. Navy sailors murdered. The USS Cole was not engaged in any combat during this period. (Oct 12, 2000) 2000 Bombing plaza Ferguson across the US Embassy, Manila, Philippines. Four other locations were bombed in Manila that day. (Dec 30, 2000) 2001 9/11 attacks: World Trade Center, Flight 93, Pentagon, almost 3, 000 people were murdered. (Sept 11, 2001) https: //factreal. wordpress. com/2012/09/11/list-islamic-terror-attacks-against-usa-before-911/